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Many tumour cells have elevated rates of glucose uptake but reduced rates of oxidative phosphorylation. This persistence of high lactate production by tumours in the presence of oxygen, known as aerobic glycolysis, was first noted by Otto Warburg more than 75 yr ago. How tumour cells establish this altered metabolic phenotype and whether it is essential for(More)
Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is under the control of both mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear genomes and is central to energy homeostasis. To investigate how its function and regulation are integrated within cells, we systematically combined four cell-based assays of OXPHOS physiology with multiplexed measurements of nuclear and mtDNA(More)
In contrast to most other sensory modalities, the basic perceptual dimensions of olfaction remain unclear. Here, we use non-negative matrix factorization (NMF)--a dimensionality reduction technique--to uncover structure in a panel of odor profiles, with each odor defined as a point in multi-dimensional descriptor space. The properties of NMF are favorable(More)
Protein-protein interactions are governed by the change in free energy upon binding, ΔG = ΔH - TΔS. These interactions are often marginally stable, so one must examine the balance between the change in enthalpy, ΔH, and the change in entropy, ΔS, when investigating known complexes, characterizing the effects of mutations, or designing optimized variants. To(More)
Collective behavior involving distally separate regions in a protein is known to widely affect its function. In this article, we present an online approach to study and characterize collective behavior in proteins as molecular dynamics (MD) simulations progress. Our representation of MD simulations as a stream of continuously evolving data allows us to(More)
Proteins are intrinsically flexible molecules. The role of internal motions in a protein's designated function is widely debated. The role of protein structure in enzyme catalysis is well established, and conservation of structural features provides vital clues to their role in function. Recently, it has been proposed that the protein function may involve(More)
Mutations in either the mitochondrial or nuclear genomes can give rise to respiratory chain disease (RCD), a large class of devastating metabolic disorders. Their clinical management is challenging, in part because we lack facile and accurate biomarkers to aid in diagnosis and in the monitoring of disease progression. Here we introduce a sequential strategy(More)
Molecular dynamics simulations provide vast amount of information about a protein's dynamics. To interpret a protein's dynamics and how it may relate to its function, traditionally, two-way analysis techniques such as principal component analysis have been used. However, two-way analysis techniques are usually limited by the fact that they have to be done(More)
BACKGROUND Internal motions enable proteins to explore a range of conformations, even in the vicinity of native state. The role of conformational fluctuations in the designated function of a protein is widely debated. Emerging evidence suggests that sub-groups within the range of conformations (or sub-states) contain properties that may be functionally(More)
Functioning proteins do not remain fixed in a unique structure, but instead they sample a range of conformations facilitated by motions within the protein. Even in the native state, a protein exists as a collection of interconverting conformations driven by thermodynamic fluctuations. Motions on the fast time scale allow a protein to sample conformations in(More)