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Formins, characterized by formin homology domains FH1 and FH2, are required to assemble certain F-actin structures including actin cables, stress fibers, and the contractile ring. FH1FH2 in a recombinant fragment from a yeast formin (Bni1p) nucleates actin filaments in vitro. It also binds to the filament barbed end where it appears to act as a "leaky"(More)
In response to binding viral double-stranded RNA byproducts within a cell, the RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR phosphorylates the alpha subunit of the translation initiation factor eIF2 on a regulatory site, Ser51. This triggers the general shutdown of protein synthesis and inhibition of viral propagation. To understand the basis for substrate recognition(More)
In metazoans, the Ras-Raf-MEK (mitogen-activated protein-kinase kinase)-ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) signalling pathway relays extracellular stimuli to elicit changes in cellular function and gene expression. Aberrant activation of this pathway through oncogenic mutations is responsible for a large proportion of human cancer. Kinase(More)
The antiviral protein kinase PKR inhibits protein synthesis by phosphorylating the translation initiation factor eIF2alpha on Ser51. Binding of double-stranded RNA to the regulatory domains of PKR promotes dimerization, autophosphorylation, and the functional activation of the kinase. Herein, we identify mutations that activate PKR in the absence of its(More)
The complexity of cancer has led to recent interest in polypharmacological approaches for developing kinase-inhibitor drugs; however, optimal kinase-inhibition profiles remain difficult to predict. Using a Ret-kinase-driven Drosophila model of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 and kinome-wide drug profiling, here we identify that AD57 rescues oncogenic(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication is dependent on a liver-specific microRNA (miRNA), miR-122. A recent clinical trial reported that transient inhibition of miR-122 reduced viral titres in HCV-infected patients. Here we set out to better understand how miR-122 inhibition influences HCV replication over time. Unexpectedly, we observed the emergence of an(More)
Two ER membrane-resident transmembrane kinases, IRE1 and PERK, function as stress sensors in the unfolded protein response. IRE1 also has an endoribonuclease activity, which initiates a non-conventional mRNA splicing reaction, while PERK phosphorylates eIF2α. We engineered a potent small molecule, IPA, that binds to IRE1's ATP-binding pocket and predisposes(More)
Following the first CNS Anticancer Drug Discovery and Development Conference, the speakers from the first 4 sessions and organizers of the conference created this White Paper hoping to stimulate more and better CNS anticancer drug discovery and development. The first part of the White Paper reviews, comments, and, in some cases, expands on the 4 session(More)
Deregulation of the Ras-mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is an early event in many different cancers and a key driver of resistance to targeted therapies. Sustained signalling through this pathway is caused most often by mutations in K-Ras, which biochemically favours the stabilization of active RAF signalling complexes. Kinase suppressor of(More)
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