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l-Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter that binds ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. Cerebral endothelial cells from many species have been shown to express several forms of glutamate receptors; however, human cerebral endothelial cells have not been shown to express either the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor message or(More)
We recently identified genes encoding tumor endothelial markers (TEMs) that displayed elevated expression during tumor angiogenesis. From both biological and clinical points of view, TEMs associated with the cell surface membrane are of particular interest. Accordingly, we have further characterized four such genes, TEM1, TEM5, TEM7, and TEM8, all of which(More)
H+ conductive pathways have been detected in the plasma membranes of a variety of cell types. The large exquisitely H(+)-selective permeability of the conductive pathway can support sizable net H+ fluxes. Although subtle differences exist among tissues and species, certain common features suggest that related transport systems are involved in all cases. The(More)
Cerebral endothelial cells in the rat, pig, and, most recently, human have been shown to express several types of receptors specific for glutamate. High levels of glutamate disrupt the cerebral endothelial barrier via activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. We have previously suggested that this glutamate-induced barrier dysfunction was oxidant(More)
Gravity flow characteristics of various pharmaceutical granules through static conical hoppers of different cone angles were studied. Mass flow rate depends on properties of granules and cone angles when environmental conditions such as temperature and relative humidity are kept within a fixed range. The granules were made with active pharmaceutical(More)
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