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One of the early features of diabetic retinopathy is the alteration of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB), which may involve the breakdown of endothelial cell tight junctions. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of extracellular proteinases in an animal model of early diabetic retinopathy and to determine their role in the alteration of the(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the long-term effects of ranibizumab (RBZ) in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). DESIGN Prospective, randomized, interventional, multicenter clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS One hundred twenty-six patients with DME. METHODS Subjects were randomized 1:1:1 to receive 0.5 mg RBZ at baseline and months 1, 3, and 5 (group 1),(More)
Retinal angiogenesis and choroidal angiogenesis are major causes of vision loss, and the pathogenesis of this angiogenesis process is still uncertain. However, several key steps of the angiogenic cascade have been elucidated. In retinal angiogenesis, hypoxia is the initial stimulus that causes up regulation of growth factors, integrins and proteinases,(More)
Diabetic macular edema (DME) is the major cause of vision loss in diabetic persons. Alteration of the blood-retinal barrier is the hallmark of this disease, characterized by pericyte loss and endothelial cell-cell junction breakdown. Recent animal and clinical studies strongly indicate that DME is an inflammatory disease. Multiple cytokines and chemokines(More)
OBJECTIVE Increased vascular permeability due to alteration of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) is one of the major complications in early diabetes. The aim of the present study was to determine whether diabetes alters the cellular expression and distribution of the adherens junction protein vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin in retinal endothelial cells and(More)
Most anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapies in diabetic macular edema are not as robust as in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Although the VEGF appears to be a good target in diabetic macular edema, the anti-VEGF therapies appear to be of transient benefit as the edema recurs within a few weeks, and repeated injections are necessary.(More)
PURPOSE Retinal neovascularization is one of the leading causes of blindness. A crucial event in this process is the remodeling and penetration of the capillary basement membrane by migrating endothelial cells. This process requires proteolysis of basement membrane components by a variety of proteinases. The objective of the present study was to determine(More)
PURPOSE Although VEGF has been identified as an important mediator of the blood-retinal barrier alteration in diabetic retinopathy, the hypothesis for this study was that that other molecules, including the angiopoietins (Ang-1 and -2), may play a role. The expression of angiopoietins was analyzed in an animal model of diabetic retinopathy, and the role of(More)
The objective of the study was to determine the role of the angiopoietins in the regulation of gelatinase expression during angiogenesis, and whether inhibition of the angiopoietin/Tek interaction in vivo can suppress the extent of retinal neovascularization. Retinal microvascular endothelial cells were treated with angiopoietins and examined for the(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine the role of vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) in cellular processes underlying angiogenesis and the effects of VE-cadherin inhibition on retinal angiogenesis. METHODS Retinal neovascularization was induced in newborn mice by exposure to 75% oxygen (postnatal days 7-12) followed by room air and quantitated from histological(More)