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Glucocorticoids, which are widely used as antiinflammatory agents, downregulate the expression of the interleukin 6 gene and of additional cytokine genes involved in inflammatory responses. Conversely, the transcription factor NF-kappa B, a member of the Rel family of transcription factors, has been implicated in the induction of multiple genes involved in(More)
The mechanism of repression of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) promoter by 17 beta-estradiol (E2) was investigated in cells transfected with wild-type (wt) or mutant estrogen receptor (ER) expression vectors. In transient transfection experiments, IL-1-induced activation of the IL-6 promoter was efficiently inhibited by wt ER. However, estrogen receptors carrying(More)
To further understand the biology of rhinovirus (RV), we determined whether IL-6 was produced during RV infections and characterized the mechanism by which RV stimulates lung cell IL-6 production. In contrast to normals and minimally symptomatic volunteers, IL-6 was detected in the nasal washings from patients who developed colds after RV challenge. RV14(More)
The transcription factor GATA-3 is expressed in T helper 2 (TH2) but not TH1 cells and plays a critical role in TH2 differentiation and allergic airway inflammation in vivo. Mice that lack the p50 subunit of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) are unable to mount airway eosinophilic inflammation. We show here that this is not due to defects in TH2 cell(More)
Interleukin-5 (IL-5), which is produced by CD4(+) T helper 2 (Th2) cells, but not by Th1 cells, plays a key role in the development of eosinophilia in asthma. Despite increasing evidence that the outcome of many diseases is determined by the ratio of the two subsets of CD4(+) T helper cells, Th1 and Th2, the molecular basis for Th1- and Th2-specific gene(More)
The cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, secreted by Th2 cells, have distinct functions in the pathogenesis of asthma. We have previously shown that the transcription factor GATA-3 is expressed in Th2 but not Th1 cells. However, it was unclear whether GATA-3 controls the expression of all Th2 cytokines. Expression of a dominant-negative mutant of GATA-3 in mice(More)
The chemokine regulated on activation normal T cells expressed and secreted (RANTES) has been implicated in eosinophil chemotaxis in asthma and allergic diseases, which are thought to be T helper (Th) type 2-dominated diseases. However, adoptive transfer of Th1 cells in mice upregulates RANTES gene expression in the lung, and increased RANTES expression has(More)
The EEG from frontal cortex, EMG and EOG were recorded from rats exposed to only exercise (Treadmill), only stress, exercise + stress and neither (control). In comparison with the control group, the percent of Delta activity in the awake was significantly increased in the depressed group and significantly decreased in the exercised groups, while for Beta-2,(More)
The cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 are often coordinately produced by Th2 cells as in asthma. However, it is unclear whether similar molecular mechanisms underlie transcription of the two genes. We have previously shown that the transcription factor GATA-3 is expressed in Th2 but not Th1 cells and is crucial for activation of the IL-5 promoter by different(More)
Dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and 4-methylhistamine facilitated whereas noradrenaline and 2-pyridylethylamine inhibited footshock aggression (FSA) in rats. Dopamine increased FSA in cyproheptadine and cimetidine but not in pimozide pretreated animals; 5-hydroxytryptamine potentiated FSA in cimetidine and pimozide but not in cyproheptadine pretreated rats;(More)