Aruna Chandran

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BACKGROUND The global burden of disease attributable to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) remains unknown. We aimed to estimate the global incidence of and mortality from episodes of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) due to RSV in children younger than 5 years in 2005. METHODS We estimated the incidence of RSV-associated ALRI in children younger(More)
BACKGROUND The annual number of hospital admissions and in-hospital deaths due to severe acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) in young children worldwide is unknown. We aimed to estimate the incidence of admissions and deaths for such infections in children younger than 5 years in 2010. METHODS We estimated the incidence of admissions for severe and(More)
BACKGROUND Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) are emerging as one of the most promising means to prevent pediatric disease. The 7-valent PCV (PCV-7) has been extensively evaluated in clinical trials, and recent evidence from the introduction of PCV-7 through national immunization programs has demonstrated impact on pneumococcal disease. METHODS(More)
According to the World Health Organization, unintentional injuries were responsible for over 3.9 million deaths and over 138 million disability-adjusted life-years in 2004, with over 90% of those occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). This paper utilizes the year 2004 World Health Organization Global Burden of Disease Study estimates to(More)
Discovery of intestinal sodium-glucose transport was the basis for development of oral rehydration solution, and was hailed as potentially the most important medical advance of the 20th century. Before widespread use of oral rehydration solution, treatment for diarrhoea was restricted to intravenous fluid replacement, for which patients had to go to a(More)
BACKGROUND Despite recent achievements to reduce child mortality, neonatal deaths continue to remain high, accounting for 41% of all deaths in children under five years of age worldwide, of which over 90% occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Infections are a leading cause of death and limitations in care seeking for ill neonates contribute to(More)
BACKGROUND Numerous sequelae have been noted in survivors of bacterial meningitis; however, few studies document sequelae for several years following a childhood episode of bacterial meningitis. In addition, studies generally focus on the more commonly found sequelae. To review the known information and highlight this gap, this article presents a(More)
We report the phase III trial efficacy of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against clinical and culture proven otitis media (OM) among Navajo and White Mountain Apache infants. Efficacy was -0.4% (95% CI: -19.4 to 15.6) for clinically-diagnosed OM, 5.1% (95% CI: -51.5 to 40.6) for severe OM, and 64% (95% CI: -34% to 90%) for vaccine serotype(More)
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in children under 5 years of age. In countries where the Hib conjugate vaccine is not routinely used, Hib is a leading cause of childhood pneumonia and meningitis. Routine use of the Hib conjugate vaccines has resulted in a remarkable decline(More)
Rotavirus infection is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis globally, with greater than 86% of deaths occurring in low-income and middle-income countries. There are two rotavirus vaccines currently licensed in the United States and prequalified by the World Health Organization. RV1 is a monovalent attenuated human rotavirus strain, given orally(More)