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Our studies using atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveal a new group of plasma membrane structures involved in exocytosis in live pancreatic acinar cells. These studies demonstrate that "pits" and "depressions" are sites at the apical plasma membrane in live cells, where membrane-bound secretory vesicles dock and transiently fuse to release vesicular contents.
Tryptic digestion of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) isolated from rat adrenal glands labeled with 32Pi produced five phosphopeptides. Based on the correspondence of these phosphopeptides with those identified in TH from rat pheochromocytoma cells, four phosphorylation sites (Ser8, Ser19, Ser31, and Ser40) were inferred. Field stimulation of the splanchnic nerves(More)
The novel chromogranin A fragment catestatin (bovine chromogranin A(344-364); RSMRLSFRARGYGFRGPGLQL) is a potent inhibitor of catecholamine release (IC50, approximately 0.2-0.3 microM) by acting as a nicotinic cholinergic antagonist. To define the minimal active region within catestatin, we tested the potencies of synthetic serial three-residue deletion(More)
The effect of continuous stimulation of splanchnic nerves at 1, 3, and 10 Hz on the secretion of catecholamines from the isolated rat adrenal gland was examined. Secretion evoked at 10 Hz declined over 60% in 1 h, and by the end of 4 h the secretion was only 10% of the initial value. The secretion evoked at 3 Hz was unchanged in the first hour, but showed a(More)
1. Rat adrenal medulla is stimulated by cholinergic and peptidergic transmitters released from splanchnic nerves. The peptidergic transmitter has been identified as vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and its contribution in comparison to that of acetylcholine (ACh) is more prominent at low neuronal activity. The purpose of this study is to determine if(More)
1. The perfused adrenal gland of the rat was used to establish the identity of a non-cholinergic substance involved in splanchnic nerve-mediated secretion of catecholamines. 2. The perfused adrenal medulla was rich in vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) content (28 pmol g-1 of wet tissue). VIP-immunoreactive nerve fibres were present in the adrenal(More)
Fluorescence imaging of indo-1 loaded cells was used to monitor influx and distribution of Ca2+ in cell bodies, neurites and growth cones of sympathetic neurons cultured from embryonic chick. Similar experiments on release of tritiated noradrenaline were performed to assess the relationship between intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and transmitter(More)
A single stimulus applied to sympathetic neurons co-cultured with cardiac cells produced a very small increase in the release of tritiated norepinephrine and intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), but evoked a typical neuronal action potential. Treatment with 10 mM tetraethylammonium caused a dramatic increase in the responses to a single(More)
The results of the present experiments demonstrate that embryonic sympathetic neurons initially selected in culture by nerve growth factor could be subsequently supported by raising potassium concentration of the medium to 35 mM. Alternatively, neurons initially selected by 35 mM potassium could be supported in a normal culture medium but supplemented with(More)
The functional behavior of embryonic chick sympathetic neurons was determined by inducing release of [3H]norepinephrine by electrical stimulation of sympathetic neurons growing in the chick heart and in culture, with and without heart cells. A very close correspondence between the functional behavior of neurons developing with the heart cells, either in(More)