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Our studies using atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveal a new group of plasma membrane structures involved in exocytosis in live pancreatic acinar cells. These studies demonstrate that "pits" and "depressions" are sites at the apical plasma membrane in live cells, where membrane-bound secretory vesicles dock and transiently fuse to release vesicular contents.
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is the most potent non-cholinergic neurotransmitter to stimulate catecholamine secretion from rat chromaffin cells; however, the mechanism of action is not clear. We used amperometric detection of exocytosis and indo-1 monitoring of [Ca2+]i to identify PACAP actions in cultured chromaffin cells.(More)
The novel chromogranin A fragment catestatin (bovine chromogranin A(344-364); RSMRLSFRARGYGFRGPGLQL) is a potent inhibitor of catecholamine release (IC50, approximately 0.2-0.3 microM) by acting as a nicotinic cholinergic antagonist. To define the minimal active region within catestatin, we tested the potencies of synthetic serial three-residue deletion(More)
Several investigators have shown that tumour promoter phorbol esters mimic the effects of endogenous diacylglycerol to activate a second messenger, protein kinase C. These phorbol esters have proved to be valuable tools for exploring the role of protein kinase C in many cellular functions. We demonstrate here that secretion of catecholamines evoked from the(More)
Fluorescence imaging of indo-1 loaded cells was used to monitor influx and distribution of Ca2+ in cell bodies, neurites and growth cones of sympathetic neurons cultured from embryonic chick. Similar experiments on release of tritiated noradrenaline were performed to assess the relationship between intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and transmitter(More)
1. The perfused adrenal gland of the rat was used to establish the identity of a non-cholinergic substance involved in splanchnic nerve-mediated secretion of catecholamines. 2. The perfused adrenal medulla was rich in vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) content (28 pmol g-1 of wet tissue). VIP-immunoreactive nerve fibres were present in the adrenal(More)
A study of the effects of dihydropyridine Ca2+ channel modulators on the release of catecholamines from perfused rat adrenal glands, evoked by electrical stimulation of their splanchnic nerves, is presented. Electrically mediated secretory responses were compared to chemically mediated responses (exogenous acetylcholine, nicotine, or high K+). Intensities(More)
1. Rat adrenal medulla is stimulated by cholinergic and peptidergic transmitters released from splanchnic nerves. The peptidergic transmitter has been identified as vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and its contribution in comparison to that of acetylcholine (ACh) is more prominent at low neuronal activity. The purpose of this study is to determine if(More)
1. Cat spleens were perfused with Krebs-bicarbonate solution by means of a constant flow pump. The amount of noradrenaline released by an injection of potassium chloride solution (3.7M) was measured. The dependence of noradrenaline released by KCl on the ionic composition of perfusion medium was determined.2. In normal cats, the average output was 166 ng(More)
The functional behavior of embryonic chick sympathetic neurons was determined by inducing release of [3H]norepinephrine by electrical stimulation of sympathetic neurons growing in the chick heart and in culture, with and without heart cells. A very close correspondence between the functional behavior of neurons developing with the heart cells, either in(More)