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Memapsin 2 (beta-secretase) is a membrane-associated aspartic protease involved in the production of beta-amyloid peptide in Alzheimer's disease and is a major target for drug design. We determined the crystal structure of the protease domain of human memapsin 2 complexed to an eight-residue inhibitor at 1.9 angstrom resolution. The active site of memapsin(More)
Darunavir (DRV) is a nonpeptidic protease inhibitor (PI) approved for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. DRV displays potent activity against HIV strains resistant to other available PIs. Coadministration with ritonavir (RTV) improves the oral bioavailability of DRV. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 by RTV has been proposed as a(More)
Melittin is a cationic hemolytic peptide isolated from the European honey bee, Apis mellifera. Since the association of the peptide in the membrane is linked with its physiological effects, a detailed understanding of the interaction of melittin with membranes is crucial. We have investigated the interaction of melittin with membranes of varying surface(More)
Coronaviruses encode multifunctional proteins that are critical for viral replication and for blocking the innate immune response to viral infection. One such multifunctional domain is the coronavirus papain-like protease (PLP), which processes the viral replicase polyprotein, has deubiquitinating (DUB) activity, and antagonizes the induction of type I(More)
Our structure-based design strategies which specifically target the HIV-1 protease backbone, resulted in a number of exceedingly potent nonpeptidyl inhibitors. One of these inhibitors, darunavir (TMC114), contains a privileged, structure-based designed high-affinity P2 ligand, 3(R),3a(S),6a(R)-bis-tetrahydrofuranylurethane (bis-THF). Darunavir has recently(More)
Laulimalide is a cytotoxic natural product that stabilizes microtubules. The compound enhances tubulin assembly, and laulimalide is quantitatively comparable to paclitaxel in its effects on the reaction. Laulimalide is also active in P-glycoprotein overexpressing cells, while isolaulimalide, a congener without the drug's epoxide moiety, was reported to have(More)
β-Secretase (memapsin 2; BACE-1) is the first protease in the processing of amyloid precursor protein leading to the production of amyloid-β (Aβ) in the brain. It is believed that high levels of brain Aβ are responsible for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, β-secretase is a major therapeutic target for the development of inhibitor(More)
The potent new antiviral inhibitor TMC-114 (UIC-94017) of HIV-1 protease (PR) has been studied with three PR variants containing single mutations D30N, I50V, and L90M, which provide resistance to the major clinical inhibitors. The inhibition constants (K(i)) of TMC-114 for mutants PR(D30N), PR(I50V), and PR(L90M) were 30-, 9-, and 0.14-fold, respectively,(More)
Memapsin 1 is closely homologous to memapsin 2 (BACE), or beta-secretase, whose action on beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) leads to the production of beta-amyloid (A beta) peptide and the progression of Alzheimer's disease. Memapsin 2 is a current target for the development of inhibitor drugs to treat Alzheimer's disease. Although memapsin 1 hydrolyzes(More)
BACE1 (β-secretase, memapsin 2, Asp2) has emerged as a promising target for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. BACE1 is an aspartic protease which functions in the first step of the pathway leading to the production and deposition of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). Its gene deletion showed only mild phenotypes. BACE1 inhibition has direct implications in the(More)