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Carbonic anhydrase II-positive pancreatic cells are progenitors for both endocrine and exocrine pancreas after birth
TLDR
It is shown that CAII-expressing cells within the pancreas act as progenitors that give rise to both new islets and acini normally after birth and after injury (ductal ligation).
Gene Expression Profiles of Beta-Cell Enriched Tissue Obtained by Laser Capture Microdissection from Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes
TLDR
This study made possible by LCM has identified many novel changes in gene expression that enhance understanding of the pathogenesis of T2D.
Chronic Hyperglycemia Triggers Loss of Pancreatic β Cell Differentiation in an Animal Model of Diabetes*
TLDR
Chronic hyperglycemia leads to β cell hypertrophy and loss of β cell differentiation that is correlated with changes in c-Myc and other key transcription factors, which could contribute to the profound derangement of insulin secretion in human diabetes.
Activation of the Hexosamine Pathway Leads to Deterioration of Pancreatic β-Cell Function through the Induction of Oxidative Stress*
TLDR
In isolated rat islets adenovirus-mediated overexpression of glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the hexosamine pathway, leads to deterioration of β-cell function, which is similar to that found in diabetes.
Mutations at the BLK locus linked to maturity onset diabetes of the young and β-cell dysfunction
TLDR
It is found that BLK—a nonreceptor tyrosine-kinase of the src family of proto-oncogenes—is expressed in β-cells where it enhances insulin synthesis and secretion in response to glucose by up-regulating transcription factors Pdx1 and Nkx6.
Identification of β-cell-specific insulin gene transcription factor RIPE3b1 as mammalian MafA
TLDR
Cloning of the human mafA (hMafA) is reported and it is demonstrated that it can specifically bind the insulin enhancer element RIPE3b and activate insulin-gene expression, suggesting that mMafA has an essential role in the function and differentiation of β-cells and thus may be associated with the pathophysiological origins of diabetes.
The pancreatic ductal epithelium serves as a potential pool of progenitor cells
TLDR
It is suggested that the pancreatic duct epithelium itself serves as a pool for progenitors for both islet and acinar tissues after birth and into adulthood and, thus, that the duct epit Helium can be considered ‘facultative stem cells’.
Activation of pancreatic-duct-derived progenitor cells during pancreas regeneration in adult rats
TLDR
A mechanism by which adult pancreatic duct cells recapitulate aspects of embryonic Pancreas differentiation in response to injury, and contribute to regeneration of the pancreas is provided.
Increased expression of antioxidant and antiapoptotic genes in islets that may contribute to beta-cell survival during chronic hyperglycemia.
TLDR
Beta-cells of Px rats were not vulnerable to apoptosis when further challenged in vivo with dexamethasone, which increases insulin resistance, and, hence, increased insulin demand is accompanied by the induction of protective stress genes that may contribute to the survival of hypertrophied beta-cells.
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