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The formation of the molluscan shell is regulated to a large extent by a matrix of extracellular macromolecules that are secreted by the shell forming tissue, the mantle. This so called "calcifying matrix" is a complex mixture of proteins and glycoproteins that is assembled and occluded within the mineral phase during the calcification process. While the(More)
Peptidoglycan is polymerized by monofunctional d,d-transpeptidases belonging to class B penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and monofunctional glycosyltransferases and by bifunctional enzymes that combine both activities (class A PBPs). Three genes encoding putative class A PBPs (pbpF, pbpZ, and ponA) were deleted from the chromosome of Enterococcus faecium(More)
We report here the first direct assessment of the specificity of a class of peptidoglycan cross-linking enzymes, the L,D-transpeptidases, for the highly diverse structure of peptidoglycan precursors of Gram-positive bacteria. The lone functionally characterized member of this new family of active site cysteine peptidases, Ldt(fm) from Enterococcus faecium,(More)
Corynebacterium jeikeium is an emerging nosocomial pathogen responsible for vascular catheters infections, prosthetic endocarditis and septicemia. The treatment of C. jeikeium infections is complicated by the multiresistance of clinical isolates to antibiotics, in particular to beta-lactams, the most broadly used class of antibiotics. To gain insight into(More)
Glycopeptides and beta-lactams are the major antibiotics available for the treatment of infections due to Gram-positive bacteria. Emergence of cross-resistance to these drugs by a single mechanism has been considered as unlikely because they inhibit peptidoglycan polymerization by different mechanisms. The glycopeptides bind to the(More)
Our understanding of the mechanisms used by Mycobacterium tuberculosis to persist in a "dormant" state is essential to the development of therapies effective in sterilizing tissues. Gene expression profiling in model systems has revealed a complex adaptive response thought to endow M. tuberculosis with the capacity to survive several months of combinatorial(More)
This study evaluates the effect of the mother-of-pearl (nacre) organic matrix on mammalian osteoclast activity and on cathepsin K protease. Rabbit osteoclasts were cultured on bovine cortical bone slices in the presence of water-soluble molecules extracted from nacre of the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera. Osteoclast resorption activity was determined(More)
In mollusks, one of the most widely studied shell textures is nacre, the lustrous aragonitic layer that constitutes the internal components of the shells of several bivalves, a few gastropods,and one cephalopod: the nautilus. Nacre contains a minor organic fraction, which displays a wide range of functions in relation to the biomineralization process. Here,(More)
Shell matrix proteins from Pinctada margaritifera were characterized by combining proteomics analysis of shell organic extracts and transcript sequences, both obtained from the shell-forming cell by using the suppression subtractive hybridization method (SSH) and from an expressed sequence tag (EST) database available from Pinctada maxima mantle tissue.(More)
Few therapeutic alternatives remain for the treatment of infections due to multiresistant Mycobacterium abscessus. Here we show that the peptidoglycans of the "rough" and "smooth" morphotypes contain predominantly 3→3 cross-links generated by l,d-transpeptidases, indicating that these enzymes are attractive targets for the development of efficient drugs.