Arul K. Shanmugam

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Oxidative stress figures prominently in retinal diseases, including diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. Ligands for σ1R, a unique transmembrane protein localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and nuclear and plasma membranes, have profound retinal neuroprotective properties in vitro and in vivo. Studies to determine the mechanism of(More)
Sigma receptor 1 (σR1), a non-opiate transmembrane protein located on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrial membranes, is considered to be a molecular chaperone. Marked protection against cell death has been observed when ligands for σR1 have been used in in vitro and in vivo models of retinal cell death. Mice lacking σR1 (σR1 -/-) manifest(More)
PURPOSE Sigma receptors 1 (σR1) and 2 (σR2) are thought to be two distinct proteins which share the ability to bind multiple ligands, several of which are common to both receptors. Whether σR1 and σR2 share overlapping biological functions is unknown. Recently, progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) was shown to contain the putative σR2 binding(More)
The high-affinity sigma receptor 1 (σR1) ligand (+)-pentazocine ((+)-PTZ) affords profound retinal neuroprotection in vitro and in vivo by a yet-unknown mechanism. A common feature of retinal disease is Müller cell reactive gliosis, which includes cytokine release. Here, we investigated whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates cytokine release by primary(More)
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