Arul Earnest

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OBJECTIVE Because HIV rapid tests are considered for self-testing, this study aims to determine the user acceptability and feasibility of self-testing. METHODS A cross-sectional study was performed on 350 systematically sampled participants across 2 Singapore HIV testing centers using the Abbott Determine HIV 1/2 blood sample rapid test (Abbott(More)
BACKGROUND The impact that malnutrition at the time of starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) has on survival and the CD4 count response is not known. METHODS A retrospective cohort study of patients attending the national HIV referral centre in Singapore who had a CD4 count less than 250 cells/microL and a measurement of body weight performed at the time(More)
BACKGROUND The main objective of this study is to apply autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models to make real-time predictions on the number of beds occupied in Tan Tock Seng Hospital, during the recent SARS outbreak. METHODS This is a retrospective study design. Hospital admission and occupancy data for isolation beds was collected from(More)
The characteristics of cervical lymphatic metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) are not completely understood. As such, radiotherapy to the entire lymphatic of the neck bilaterally has been empirically practiced even in early stage disease, although not supported by clinical evidence. We studied the pattern and probability of nodal metastasis through(More)
SETTING The Singapore Tuberculosis (TB) Control Unit, a high volume national referral centre. OBJECTIVES To determine the incidence, clinical course and outcome of TB drug-induced hepatitis (DH) and the risk factors associated with DH under general programme conditions. DESIGN A retrospective review of adult patients started on TB treatment in 1998. (More)
OBJECTIVE To better characterize the relation between socioeconomic disadvantage and small-for-gestational age births (SGA). DESIGN Analysis of data from a mandatory population-based surveillance system. SETTING Public or private hospitals and at home. POPULATION All 877,951 singleton births occurring in New South Wales, Australia, between 1994 and(More)
Our objective was to determine the association between temperature, humidity, rainfall and dengue activity in Singapore, after taking into account lag periods as well as long-term climate variability such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). We used a Poisson model which allowed for autocorrelation and overdispersion in the data. We found weekly(More)
We studied the prevalence of and risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization in HIV-positive outpatients in Singapore. Overall prevalence was 23% (45 of 195), with 3% (6 of 195) being MRSA. Recent antibiotic use and hospitalization were independent predictors of MRSA colonization. Isolates were genotypically identical to our hospital's(More)
We did a seroepidemiological study to determine the circulating dengue virus serotypes and the extent to which the Singapore population has been exposed to multiple dengue virus serotypes, using the plaque reduction neutralization assay (PRNT). Of 164 enrolled subjects aged between 18-30 years, 49 subjects (29.8%) were PRNT positive for at least one dengue(More)
CONTEXT Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an emerging infectious disease with a 25% incidence of progression to acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and mortality exceeding 10%. OBJECTIVE To describe the clinical spectrum and outcomes of ALI/ARDS in patients with SARS-related critical illness. DESIGN, SETTING, AND(More)