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Maturation of the mammalian nervous system requires adequate provision of thyroid hormone and mechanisms that enhance tissue responses to the hormone. Here, we report that the development of cones, the photoreceptors for daylight and color vision, requires protection from thyroid hormone by type 3 deiodinase, a thyroid hormone-inactivating enzyme. Type 3(More)
Since it has been proposed that oxidized protein accumulation plays a critical role in brain aging, we have investigated the effect of a thiolic antioxidant on protein carbonyl content in synaptic mitochondria from female OF-1 mice. At 48 weeks of age, a control group was fed standard food pellets and another group received pellets containing 0.3% (w/w) of(More)
The functioning of the genome is tightly related to its architecture. Therefore, understanding the relationship between different regulatory mechanisms and the organization of chromosomal domains is essential for understanding genome regulation. The majority of imprinted genes are assembled into clusters, share common regulatory elements, and, hence,(More)
Neonatal survival in mammals is crucially dependent upon maintenance of body temperature. Neonatal body temperature is largely maintained by thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). BAT develops perinatally in mice requiring integration of adipogenic and thermoregulatory gene pathways. We describe a regulatory mutation in the imprinted gene cluster on(More)
Thyroid hormone is critical for auditory development and has well-known actions in the inner ear. However, less is known of thyroid hormone functions in the middle ear, which contains the ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes) that relay mechanical sound vibrations from the outer ear to the inner ear. During the later stages of middle ear development, prior to(More)
Mitochondrial oxidative damage is implicated in brain aging and in age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Since N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has recently been shown to prevent apoptotic death in neuronal cells and protect synaptic mitochondria proteins from oxidative damage in aged mice, we have investigated whether dietary administration of this thiolic(More)
Thyroid hormone is necessary for cochlear development and auditory function, but the factors that control these processes are poorly understood. Previous evidence indicated that in mice, the serum supply of thyroid hormone is augmented within the cochlea itself by type 2 deiodinase, which amplifies the level of T(3), the active form of thyroid hormone,(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that up-regulation of the cAMP-second messenger system is implicated in Alzheimer's disease neurodegeneration. Since previous studies reported an increased level of cAMP in microvessels of Alzheimer's patients compared with those from non-demented elderly controls, we have carried out an immunohistochemical study to compare cAMP(More)
Thyroid hormone serves many functions throughout brain development, but the mechanisms that control the timing of its actions in specific brain regions are poorly understood. In the cerebellum, thyroid hormone controls formation of the transient external germinal layer, which contains proliferative granule cell precursors, subsequent granule cell migration,(More)
Since it has been proposed that oxidized protein accumulation plays a critical role in brain aging, we have investigated their contents in synaptic mitochondria from five age groups of mice. Protein carbonyl content in synaptic mitochondria showed a significant positive correlation with age (r = 0.95, P = 0.01). A linear inverse relationship was observed(More)