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To rapidly respond to invading microorganisms, humans call on their innate immune system. This occurs by microbe-detecting receptors, such as CD14, that activate immune cells to eliminate the pathogens. Here, we link the lipopolysaccharide receptor CD14 with Alzheimer's disease, a severe neurodegenerative disease resulting in dementia. We demonstrate that(More)
BACKGROUND Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) may play a role as an infectious trigger in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Few data are available regarding the influence of acute and persistent infection on tissue remodelling and repair factors such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta. METHODS NTHI infection in(More)
BACKGROUND CpG-oligonucleotides (CpG-ODN), which induce signaling through Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), are currently under investigation as adjuvants in therapy against infections and cancer. CpG-ODN function as Th-1 adjuvants and are able to activate dendritic cells. In humans TLR9 has been described to be strongly expressed in B-lymphocytes, monocytes,(More)
The innate immune response is supposed to play an essential role in the control of amebic liver abscess (ALA), a severe form of invasive amoebiasis due to infection with the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. In a mouse model for the disease, we previously demonstrated that Jalpha18(-/-) mice, lacking invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, suffer(More)
Recently, we have shown that LPS is a potent inducer of human T cell proliferation and lymphokine production. However, the activation of T cells by LPS has been demonstrated to be monocyte dependent and to require direct cell-to-cell contact. Here, we investigated the role of monocytes as accessory cells and the requirement for costimulatory signals in more(More)
The collectin surfactant protein (SP)-A has been implicated in multiple immunoregulatory functions of innate pulmonary host defense via modulating immune responses both in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of human (hu) SPA on the inhibitory Pulmonary surfactant(More)
Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) is a ubiquitous component of dust and air pollution and is suspected to contribute after inhalation to an activation of eosinophils in bronchial tissues of asthmatic patients, provoking inflammatory and allergic processes. We were therefore interested in the interaction of eosinophil granulocytes with LPS and(More)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to induce proliferation of human T-lymphocytes only in the presence of monocytes and CD34(+) hematopoietic cells (HCs) from peripheral blood. This finding provided evidence of an active role of CD34(+) HCs during inflammation and immunological events. To investigate mechanisms by which CD34(+) HCs become activated and(More)
The expression of tissue factor (TF), the principal initiator of coagulation, is increased during inflammation and atherosclerosis. Both conditions are promoted by lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC). We observed in the present study that lysoPC (1 to 10 micromol/L) dose-dependently reduced TF activity in human monocytes, as elicited by lipopolysaccharide(More)
CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells, which circulate in peripheral blood with very low frequency, exert essential accessory function during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced human T lymphocyte activation, resulting in interferon gamma production and proliferation. In contrast, stimulation of T cells by "conventional" recall antigens is not controlled by blood(More)