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Bacterial cell walls contain lipoproteins/peptides, which are strong modulators of the innate immune system. Triacylated lipopeptides are assumed to be recognized by TLR2/TLR1-, whereas diacylated lipopeptides use TLR2/TLR6 heteromers for signaling. Following our initial discovery of TLR6-independent diacylated lipopeptides, we could now characterize di-(More)
To rapidly respond to invading microorganisms, humans call on their innate immune system. This occurs by microbe-detecting receptors, such as CD14, that activate immune cells to eliminate the pathogens. Here, we link the lipopolysaccharide receptor CD14 with Alzheimer's disease, a severe neurodegenerative disease resulting in dementia. We demonstrate that(More)
Lipoproteins or lipopeptides (LP) are bacterial cell wall components detected by the innate immune system. For LP, it has been shown that TLR2 is the essential receptor in cellular activation. However, molecular mechanisms of LP recognition are not yet clear. We used a FLAG-labeled derivative of the synthetic lipopeptide(More)
Surface structures of bacteria contribute to the microbial pathogenic potential and are capable of causing local and generalized inflammatory reactions. Among these factors, endotoxin and peptidoglycan are of particular medical importance. Both toxic bacterial polymers are now recognized to interact with the same cellular receptor, the CD14 molecule, which(More)
OBJECTIVE Blood levels of cytokines are commonly elevated in severe congestive heart failure (CHF) and in coronary artery disease (CAD). While the adverse effects of cytokines on contractile function and myocardial cell integrity are well studied, little is known on whether cardiac cells are only targets or active players in these inflammatory reactions. (More)
Bacterial lipoproteins/peptides are composed of di-O-acylated-S-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-cysteinyl residues N-terminally coupled to distinct polypeptides, which can be N-acylated with a third fatty acid. Using a synthetic lipopeptide library we characterized the contribution of the lipid portion to the TLR2 dependent pattern recognition. We found that the two(More)
The use of a new commerically available medium (Percoll) for fractionation of human mononuclear leucocytes is described. Cells can be fractionated on the basis of their densities with high reproducibility. The separated cells were characterized by morphological and functional criteria. Monocytes can be obtained in the low density fractions with a purity of(More)
Wnt/Frizzled signaling, essential for embryonic development, has also recently been implicated in the modulation of inflammatory processes. In the current study, we observed a reciprocal regulation of the Toll-like receptor (TLR)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway after aerosol infection of mice with Mycobacterium tuberculosis: whereas(More)
In this study we investigated the binding of three different monoclonal antibodies (MoAb), TII 19-4-7, 4EL1C7, and B1.19.2, which are clustered in CD26 to the ectoenzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) and to T lymphocytes. We found that all three MoAb bind to both unstimulated and mitogen-stimulated T lymphocytes. Further results indicated an(More)
PURPOSE To study adhesion, penetration and internalization of BCG and effector-cells to and into three-dimensional in vitro cell aggregates from benign and malignant urothelial origin mimicking small in vitro tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS Multicellular spheroids (MCS) were generated by "liquid-overlay" technique. Adhesion and penetration of viable(More)