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To rapidly respond to invading microorganisms, humans call on their innate immune system. This occurs by microbe-detecting receptors, such as CD14, that activate immune cells to eliminate the pathogens. Here, we link the lipopolysaccharide receptor CD14 with Alzheimer's disease, a severe neurodegenerative disease resulting in dementia. We demonstrate that(More)
BACKGROUND Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) may play a role as an infectious trigger in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Few data are available regarding the influence of acute and persistent infection on tissue remodelling and repair factors such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta. METHODS NTHI infection in(More)
BACKGROUND CpG-oligonucleotides (CpG-ODN), which induce signaling through Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), are currently under investigation as adjuvants in therapy against infections and cancer. CpG-ODN function as Th-1 adjuvants and are able to activate dendritic cells. In humans TLR9 has been described to be strongly expressed in B-lymphocytes, monocytes,(More)
The innate immune response is supposed to play an essential role in the control of amebic liver abscess (ALA), a severe form of invasive amoebiasis due to infection with the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. In a mouse model for the disease, we previously demonstrated that Jalpha18(-/-) mice, lacking invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, suffer(More)
The collectin surfactant protein A (SPA) has been implicated in multiple immunoregulatory functions of innate pulmonary host defense via modulating immune responses both in vitro and in vivo. The present study aimed to investigate mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of human (hu) SPA on the inhibitory kappa B (IB-)/nuclear factor-B(More)
Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) is a ubiquitous component of dust and air pollution and is suspected to contribute after inhalation to an activation of eosinophils in bronchial tissues of asthmatic patients, provoking inflammatory and allergic processes. We were therefore interested in the interaction of eosinophil granulocytes with LPS and(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLR) are highly conserved pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) recognizes bacterial lipopeptides in a heterodimeric complex with TLR6 or TLR1, thereby discriminating between di- or triacylated lipopeptides, respectively. Previously, we found that HEK293 cells transfected with bovine TLR2(More)
CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells, which circulate in peripheral blood with very low frequency, exert essential accessory function during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced human T lymphocyte activation, resulting in interferon gamma production and proliferation. In contrast, stimulation of T cells by "conventional" recall antigens is not controlled by blood(More)
Streptococcus pneumoniae LTA is a highly complex glycophospholipid that consists of nine carbohydrate residues: three glucose, two galactosamine and two 2-acetamino-4-amino-2,4,6-trideoxygalactose (AATDgal) residues that are each differently linked, one ribitol and one diacylated glycerol (DAG) residue. Suitable building blocks for the glucose and the(More)
Previous studies showed a fetal sheep liver extract (FSLE), in association with LPS, injected into aged (>20 months) mice reversed the altered polarization (increased IL-4 and IL-10 with decreased IL-2 and IFN-gamma) in cytokine production seen from ConA stimulated lymphoid cells of those mice. Aged mice show a >60% decline in numbers and suppressive(More)