Arto A I Palmu

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BACKGROUND Ear infections are a common cause of illness during the first two years of life. New conjugate vaccines may be able to prevent a substantial portion of cases of acute otitis media caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. METHODS We enrolled 1662 infants in a randomized, double-blind efficacy trial of a heptavalent pneumococcal polysaccharide(More)
To assess the efficacy of a 7-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide-meningococcal outer membrane protein complex conjugate vaccine (PncOMPC) against acute otitis media (AOM), 1666 infants were randomly assigned to receive either PncOMPC or control vaccine (hepatitis B vaccine) at 2, 4, 6, and 12 months of age. Of the 835 children assigned to receive PncOMPC,(More)
We evaluated the effect of aging on the functional activity of naturally acquired anti-pneumococcal antibodies, the function of neutrophils in phagocytic killing of opsonized pneumococci, and the complement activity. Opsonic activities of antibodies to all tested pneumococcal serotypes were significantly lower and phagocytic killing of pneumococci by(More)
One hundred and twenty-one visits of 58 infants (2-11 months of age) were evaluated in the Finnish Otitis Media Vaccine Trial. Infants were examined with tympanometry (Grason-Stadler GSI 38 Autotymp) and pneumatic otoscopy by one study doctor. Diagnosis of otitis media was verified by myringotomy in 74% of cases. Tympanometry was technically successful in(More)
BACKGROUND The ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced into the Finnish National Vaccination Program (NVP) in September 2010 with a 2+1 schedule (3, 5, 12 months) without catch-up vaccinations. We evaluated the direct and indirect effects of PCV10 on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children ≤5 years of age during the first(More)
An international group of multidisciplinary experts on middle-ear and paediatric infections met to explore where consensus exists on the management of acute otitis media. After informal discussions among several specialists of paediatric infectious disease, the group was expanded to include a larger spectrum of professionals with complementary expertise in(More)
In acute otitis media (AOM), a means of prediction of the bacterial pathogen based on symptoms and signs would be valuable in selecting appropriate antimicrobial treatment. Children in the control arm (n=831) in the Finnish Otitis Media Vaccine Trial were prospectively observed in a study clinic setting from the age of 2 to 24 months. In patients with AOM,(More)
BACKGROUND Vaccine effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines against culture-confirmed invasive pneumococcal disease has been well documented. In the Finnish Invasive Pneumococcal disease (FinIP) trial, we reported vaccine effectiveness and absolute rate reduction against laboratory-confirmed invasive pneumococcal disease (confirmation by culture or(More)
The objective was to determine normative values for tympanometric variables for 7- and 24-month-old children and to assess the effect of various factors on these variables. Tympanometry was performed at scheduled health visits at 7 and 24 months of age on children recruited to a prospective vaccine efficacy trial (n=2497 children at enrolment). Tympanograms(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore the effect of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on the risk of otitis media with effusion and to search for subgroups in which the vaccine had a higher or lower effect. METHODS Analyses were performed on data from the Finnish Otitis Media Vaccine Trial, a randomised controlled double-blind trial to evaluate the efficacy of pneumococcal(More)