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Retinoic acid (RA), a putative morphogen in vertebrates, has profound effects on development during embryogenesis, chondrogenesis and differentiation of squamous epithelia. The distribution of the transcripts of the retinoic acid receptor gamma (RAR-gamma) gene has been studied here by in situ hybridization during mouse development from days 6.5 to 15.5(More)
In addition to having profound effects on embryonic pattern formation, retinoic acid (RA) has striking effects on differentiation and maintenance of epithelial cells in vivo and in vitro Skin is a major target organ for retinoids both in its normal and pathological states. The discovery of two human nuclear receptors for RA (hRAR alpha and hRAR beta) acting(More)
That both deficiency and excess of vitamin A lead to a wide spectrum of congenital abnormalities has strongly implicated the active metabolite, retinoic acid (RA), in normal embryonic development. There are 3 families of RA receptors (RARs), RAR alpha, RAR beta and RAR gamma, each having at least two isoforms derived from primary transcripts initiated at(More)
Aberrant transcriptional repression through chromatin remodelling and histone deacetylation has been postulated to represent a driving force underlying tumorigenesis because histone deacetylase inhibitors have been found to be effective in cancer treatment. However, the molecular mechanisms by which transcriptional derepression would be linked to tumour(More)
All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is a physiologically active metabolite of vitamin A. Its antitumour activities have been extensively studied in a variety of model systems and clinical trials; however, to date the only malignancy responsive to ATRA treatment is acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) where it induces complete remission in the majority of cases(More)
The Joint International Conference on Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia and Differentiation Therapy held from October 4-7, 2001 in Rome, Italy was part of a series of biannual conferences, which had its beginnings in Sardinia in 1985, with the goal of establishing differentiation induction and programmed cell death as cancer cell-selective therapies. As in the(More)
Hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow give rise to lymphoid progenitors, which subsequently differentiate into B and T lymphocytes. Here we show that the proto-oncogene LRF plays an essential role in the B versus T lymphoid cell-fate decision. We demonstrate that LRF is key for instructing early lymphoid progenitors in mice to develop into B lineage(More)
Use of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) in combinatorial differentiation therapy of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) results in exceptional cure rates. However, potent cell differentiation effects of ATRA are so far largely restricted to this disease and long-term survival rates in non-APL acute myelogeneous leukemia (AML) remain unacceptably poor,(More)
Retinoic acid (RA) receptor (RAR) beta2 has been shown to be underexpressed in human breast cancer cells, including MCF-7 cells, and recent reports have suggested that hypermethylation of the RAR beta2 promoter and 5'-UTR is the underlying cause. Here we show that RAR alpha2 is also underexpressed in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, at both the message and the(More)