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Guanylyl cyclase activating protein (GCAP1) has been proposed to act as a calcium-dependent regulator of retinal photoreceptor guanylyl cyclase (GC) activity. Using immunocytochemical and biochemical methods, we show here that GCAP1 is present in rod and cone photoreceptor outer segments where phototransduction occurs. Recombinant and native GCAP1 activate(More)
Vertebrate photoreceptor cells can signal the absorption of a single photon and then modulate their response as the intensity of the light and the intensity of the background illumination vary, and it has long been recognized that Ca2+ ions contribute to the underlying processes. Recently, several Ca(2+)-binding proteins of the EF-hand family were(More)
The complex sensation of vision begins with the relatively simple photoisomerization of the visual pigment chromophore 11-cis-retinal to its all-trans configuration. This event initiates a series of biochemical reactions that are collectively referred to as phototransduction, which ultimately lead to a change in the electrochemical signaling of the(More)
Calbindin D-28K is a calcium-binding protein found in the cone but not rod photoreceptor cells in the retinas of a variety of species. Recent studies of the monkey retina indicated that calbindin D-28K may be expressed preferentially in non-foveal regions of the retina. In the current studies of human retinas, immunohistochemical experiments demonstrated(More)
PURPOSE Neuroblastoma is an aggressive childhood disease of the sympathetic nervous system. Treatments are often ineffective and have serious side effects. Because resveratrol, a natural plant product, has been reported to have limited toxicity at chemotherapeutic levels, we investigated its efficacy in the treatment of neuroblastoma as well as its(More)
We investigated the anti-tumor effect of peritumoral resveratrol in combination with immunotherapy in vivo in neuroblastoma-bearing mice. Subcutaneous NXS2 tumors were induced in A/J mice. On day 10, some mice received 15 mcg of intravenous immunocytokine for 5 days, mice received 20 mg of peritumoral resveratrol twice a week (starting on day 12) for a(More)
For many cancers, the lack of potency and the toxicity of current drugs limits the dose achievable in patients and the efficacy of treatment. Among them, retinoblastoma is a rare cancer of the eye for which better chemotherapeutic options are needed. Combination therapy is a compelling approach to enhance the efficacy of current treatment, however clinical(More)
Two minor proteins of frog rod outer segments become phosphorylated when retinas are incubated in the dark with 32Pi. The proteins, designated component I (13,000 daltons) and component II (12,000 daltons), are dephosphorylated when retinas are illuminated. The dephosphorylation is reversible; the two proteins are rephosphorylated when illumination ceases.(More)
In the presence of 10(-9) M calcium, rod outer segments freshly detached from dark-adapted frog retinas contain between 0.01 and 0.02 moles of guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP) per mole of rhodopsin. The dark level of cyclic GMP is reduced approximately 50% by illumination that bleaches 5 x 10(5) rhodopsin molecules/outer segments. The dark(More)
Odorant stimulation of receptor cells results in a calcium influx that activates the transduction pathway. Ca2+ acceptors, such as calmodulin, may mediate between the change in intracellular calcium and the conductance mechanism underlying the initial electrical event. Ca2+ acceptors also may participate in subsequent processing of olfactory information.(More)