Arthur S. Polans

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Guanylyl cyclase activating protein (GCAP1) has been proposed to act as a calcium-dependent regulator of retinal photoreceptor guanylyl cyclase (GC) activity. Using immunocytochemical and biochemical methods, we show here that GCAP1 is present in rod and cone photoreceptor outer segments where phototransduction occurs. Recombinant and native GCAP1 activate(More)
Vertebrate photoreceptor cells can signal the absorption of a single photon and then modulate their response as the intensity of the light and the intensity of the background illumination vary, and it has long been recognized that Ca2+ ions contribute to the underlying processes. Recently, several Ca(2+)-binding proteins of the EF-hand family were(More)
The complex sensation of vision begins with the relatively simple photoisomerization of the visual pigment chromophore 11-cis-retinal to its all-trans configuration. This event initiates a series of biochemical reactions that are collectively referred to as phototransduction, which ultimately lead to a change in the electrochemical signaling of the(More)
The role of the cytoplasmic loops and C-terminal region of bovine rhodopsin (Rho) in binding and activating rhodopsin kinase was investigated. The ability of various enzymatically truncated forms of photolyzed rhodopsin (Rho*) to stimulate rhodopsin kinase activity was quantified. Following endopeptidase Asp-N cleavage of all phosphorylation sites on the(More)
Resveratrol (RES), a natural plant polyphenol, has gained interest as a nontoxic chemopreventive agent capable of inducing tumor cell death in a variety of cancer types. However, the early molecular mechanisms of RES-induced apoptosis are not well defined. Using the human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7, we demonstrate that RES is(More)
Odorant stimulation of receptor cells results in a calcium influx that activates the transduction pathway. Ca2+ acceptors, such as calmodulin, may mediate between the change in intracellular calcium and the conductance mechanism underlying the initial electrical event. Ca2+ acceptors also may participate in subsequent processing of olfactory information.(More)
PURPOSE To determine the molecular mechanisms by which resveratrol induces retinoblastoma tumor cell death. METHODS After resveratrol treatment, Y79 tumor cell viability was measured using a fluorescence-based assay, and proapoptotic and antiproliferative effects were characterized by Hoechst stain and flow cytometry, respectively. Mitochondrial(More)
PURPOSE Neuroblastoma is an aggressive childhood disease of the sympathetic nervous system. Treatments are often ineffective and have serious side effects. Because resveratrol, a natural plant product, has been reported to have limited toxicity at chemotherapeutic levels, we investigated its efficacy in the treatment of neuroblastoma as well as its(More)
PURPOSE To test the efficacy of resveratrol, a nontoxic plant product, in the treatment of uveal melanoma. METHODS The effect of oral administration and peritumor injection of resveratrol was tested on tumor growth in two animal models of uveal melanoma. The mechanism of resveratrol action on uveal melanoma cells was studied in vitro in a cell-viability(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the expression of angiogenic factors Cyr61 and tissue factor (TF) in uveal melanoma and its correlation with blood vessel density. METHODS Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to identify genes that are differentially expressed between cell lines of uveal melanoma and normal uveal melanocytes. Expression of these genes was(More)