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Guanylyl cyclase activating protein (GCAP1) has been proposed to act as a calcium-dependent regulator of retinal photoreceptor guanylyl cyclase (GC) activity. Using immunocytochemical and biochemical methods, we show here that GCAP1 is present in rod and cone photoreceptor outer segments where phototransduction occurs. Recombinant and native GCAP1 activate(More)
Vertebrate photoreceptor cells can signal the absorption of a single photon and then modulate their response as the intensity of the light and the intensity of the background illumination vary, and it has long been recognized that Ca2+ ions contribute to the underlying processes. Recently, several Ca(2+)-binding proteins of the EF-hand family were(More)
Calbindin D-28K is a calcium-binding protein found in the cone but not rod photoreceptor cells in the retinas of a variety of species. Recent studies of the monkey retina indicated that calbindin D-28K may be expressed preferentially in non-foveal regions of the retina. In the current studies of human retinas, immunohistochemical experiments demonstrated(More)
Odorant stimulation of receptor cells results in a calcium influx that activates the transduction pathway. Ca2+ acceptors, such as calmodulin, may mediate between the change in intracellular calcium and the conductance mechanism underlying the initial electrical event. Ca2+ acceptors also may participate in subsequent processing of olfactory information.(More)
In the presence of 10(-9) M calcium, rod outer segments freshly detached from dark-adapted frog retinas contain between 0.01 and 0.02 moles of guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP) per mole of rhodopsin. The dark level of cyclic GMP is reduced approximately 50% by illumination that bleaches 5 x 10(5) rhodopsin molecules/outer segments. The dark(More)
Two minor proteins of frog rod outer segments become phosphorylated when retinas are incubated in the dark with 32Pi. The proteins, designated component I (13,000 daltons) and component II (12,000 daltons), are dephosphorylated when retinas are illuminated. The dephosphorylation is reversible; the two proteins are rephosphorylated when illumination ceases.(More)
PURPOSE We investigated the hypothesis that visinin, a cone-specific protein first characterized in chicken retina, is a cone homologue of recoverin and may be the cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR) autoantigen in human cone cells. METHODS Visinin was purified from chicken retinas and tested for binding by CAR antisera. In addition, antibodies specific(More)
The role of the cytoplasmic loops and C-terminal region of bovine rhodopsin (Rho) in binding and activating rhodopsin kinase was investigated. The ability of various enzymatically truncated forms of photolyzed rhodopsin (Rho*) to stimulate rhodopsin kinase activity was quantified. Following endopeptidase Asp-N cleavage of all phosphorylation sites on the(More)
The complex sensation of vision begins with the relatively simple photoisomerization of the visual pigment chromophore 11-cis-retinal to its all-trans configuration. This event initiates a series of biochemical reactions that are collectively referred to as phototransduction, which ultimately lead to a change in the electrochemical signaling of the(More)
Cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR), a paraneoplastic syndrome, is characterized by the degeneration of retinal photoreceptors under conditions where the tumor and its metastases have not invaded the eye. The retinopathy often is apparent before the diagnosis of cancer and may be associated with autoantibodies that react with specific sites in the retina.(More)