Arthur S. Elstein

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Normative discounted utility theory specifies that the values of all future outcomes (for example, those related to health and money) should be discounted at a constant rate. Two experiments demonstrated that, contrary to this prescription, decision makers use different discount rates for health-related decisions and money-related decisions. Temporal(More)
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication data Decision making in health and medicine: integrating evidence and values / M.G. Myriam Hunink. .. [et al.] p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index.
CONTEXT Computer-based diagnostic decision support systems (DSSs) were developed to improve health care quality by providing accurate, useful, and timely diagnostic information to clinicians. However, most studies have emphasized the accuracy of the computer system alone, without placing clinicians in the role of direct users. OBJECTIVE To explore the(More)
Consideration of cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) illustrates how decision analysis may be used to evaluate systematically two treatment options--surgery before bleeding occurs or conservative management. The analysis balances risk of immediate surgical mortality and morbidity against the delayed risks inherent in conservative management. Because(More)
Background: Diagnosis errors are frequent and important, but represent an underemphasized and understudied area of patient safety. Diagnosis errors are challenging to detect and dissect. It is often difficult to agree whether an error has occurred, and even harder to determine with certainty its causes and consequence. The authors applied four safety(More)