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Normative discounted utility theory specifies that the values of all future outcomes (for example, those related to health and money) should be discounted at a constant rate. Two experiments demonstrated that, contrary to this prescription, decision makers use different discount rates for health-related decisions and money-related decisions. Temporal(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the first decade of experience with minimal access surgery, with particular attention to issues of training surgeons already in practice, and to provide a set of recommendations to improve technical training for surgeons in practice. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA Concerns about the adequacy of training in new techniques for practicing(More)
Consideration of cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) illustrates how decision analysis may be used to evaluate systematically two treatment options--surgery before bleeding occurs or conservative management. The analysis balances risk of immediate surgical mortality and morbidity against the delayed risks inherent in conservative management. Because(More)
BACKGROUND Missed or delayed diagnoses are a common but understudied area in patient safety research. To better understand the types, causes, and prevention of such errors, we surveyed clinicians to solicit perceived cases of missed and delayed diagnoses. METHODS A 6-item written survey was administered at 20 grand rounds presentations across the United(More)
Two versions of the time-tradeoff (TTO) method were compared. In the personal TTO version, 31 prostate cancer patients decided whether they personally would give up some longevity to have perfect health rather than a longer life in a state of poor health associated with prostate cancer. In the impersonal version, 28 patients compared two hypothetical(More)
This paper has five objectives: (a) to review the scientific background of, and major findings reported in, Medical Problem Solving, now widely recognized as a classic in the field; (b) to compare these results with some of the findings in a recent best-selling collection of case studies; (c) to summarize criticisms of the hypothesis-testing model and to(More)
The VA Cancer of the Prostate Outcomes Study (VA CaPOS) is collecting quality-of-life (QOL) information from prostate cancer patients, spouses, and physicians at six VA medical centers. Currently, 601 men with prostate cancer are included in the study, most of whom are of low socioeconomic status and over half of whom are African-American. Quality-of-life(More)