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Species of RNA that bind with high affinity and specificity to the bronchodilator theophylline were identified by selection from an oligonucleotide library. One RNA molecule binds to theophylline with a dissociation constant Kd of 0.1 microM. This binding affinity is 10,000-fold greater than the RNA molecule's affinity for caffeine, which differs from(More)
Dipolar coupling interactions represent an extremely valuable source of long-range distance and angle information that was previously not available for solution structure determinations of macromolecules. This is because observation of these dipolar coupling data requires creating an anisotropic environment for the macromolecule. Here we introduce a new(More)
The hammerhead ribozyme is a small RNA motif that catalyzes the cleavage and ligation of RNA. The well-studied minimal hammerhead motif is inactive under physiological conditions and requires high Mg(2+) concentrations for efficient cleavage. In contrast, natural hammerheads are active under physiological conditions and contain motifs outside the catalytic(More)
The vicinal amide proton-C alpha proton spin-spin coupling constants, JHN alpha, in the globular protein basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) have been measured using phase-sensitive correlated spectroscopy at high digital resolution. In conjunction with the crystal structure of BPTI, these data were used to calibrate the correlation between 3JHN alpha(More)
The most frequently occurring RNA hairpins in 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA contain a tetranucleotide loop that has a GNRA consensus sequence. The solution structures of the GCAA and GAAA hairpins have been determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Both loops contain an unusual G-A base pair between the first and last residue in the loop, a(More)
The iron responsive element (IRE) is a approximately 30 nucleotide RNA hairpin that is located in the 5' untranslated region of all ferritin mRNAs and in the 3' untranslated region of all transferrin receptor mRNAs. The IREs are bound by two related IRE-binding proteins (IRPs) which help control intracellular levels of iron by regulating the expression of(More)
RNA hairpin loops containing a GNRA consensus sequence are the most frequently occurring hairpins in a variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic RNAs. These tetraloops play important functional roles in RNA folding, in RNA-RNA tertiary interactions and as protein binding sites. Homo and heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy have been used to determine the structures(More)
An RNA aptamer containing a 15-nt binding site shows high affinity and specificity for the bronchodilator theophylline. A variety of base modifications or 2' deoxyribose substitutions in binding-site residues were tested for theophyllinebinding affinity and the results were compared with the previously determined three-dimensional structure of the(More)
Aptamers recognize their targets with extraordinary affinity and specificity. The aptamer-based therapeutic, Macugen, is derived from a modified 2'fluoro pyrimidine RNA inhibitor to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and is now being used to treat the wet form of age-related macular degeneration. This VEGF(165) aptamer binds specifically to the(More)
The solution structure of two homologous naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides, rabbit defensin NP-2 and human defensin HNP-1, have been determined by two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, distance geometry, and restrained molecular dynamics calculations. The structure of these defensins consists of an antiparallel beta-sheet in a(More)