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Genetic research on influenza virus biology has been informed in large part by nucleotide variants present in seasonal or pandemic samples, or individual mutants generated in the laboratory, leaving a substantial part of the genome uncharacterized. Here, we have developed a single-nucleotide resolution genetic approach to interrogate the fitness effect of(More)
Epistasis is one of the central themes in viral evolution due to its importance in drug resistance, immune escape, and interspecies transmission. However, there is a lack of experimental approach to systematically probe for epistatic residues. By utilizing the information from natural occurring sequences and high-throughput genetics, this study established(More)
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