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Malignant cells, like all actively growing cells, must maintain their telomeres, but genetic mechanisms responsible for telomere maintenance in tumors have only recently been discovered. In particular, mutations of the telomere binding proteins alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) or death-domain associated protein (DAXX) have been(More)
Endemic (Balkan) nephropathy (EN), a devastating renal disease affecting men and women living in rural areas of Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania, and Serbia, is characterized by its insidious onset, invariable progression to chronic renal failure and a strong association with transitional cell (urothelial) carcinoma of the upper urinary tract. Significant(More)
Aristolochic acid, a potent human carcinogen produced by Aristolochia plants, is associated with urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract (UUC). Following metabolic activation, aristolochic acid reacts with DNA to form aristolactam (AL)-DNA adducts. These lesions concentrate in the renal cortex, where they serve as a sensitive and specific biomarker(More)
Aristolochic acids (AAs) are plant-derived nephrotoxins and carcinogens responsible for chronic renal failure and associated urothelial cell cancers in several clinical syndromes known collectively as aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN). Mice provide a useful model for study of AAN because the renal histopathology of AA-treated mice is strikingly similar to(More)
Ingestion of herbal remedies containing aristolochic acids (AAs) is associated with the development of a syndrome, designated aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN), which is characterized by chronic renal failure, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and urothelial cancer. To distinguish the component(s) of AA responsible for these varied toxic effects, we(More)
This review constitutes an overview of our investigations of aristolochic acid nephropathy, a chronic kidney disease associated with carcinomas of the upper urinary tract. Our studies began by confirming the hypothesis that chronic dietary poisoning by aristolochic acid was responsible for endemic (Balkan) nephropathy. A unique TP53 mutational signature in(More)
Substrate specificities of FPG protein (also known as formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase) and 8-hydroxyguanine endonuclease were compared by using defined duplex oligodeoxynucleotides containing single residues of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyadenosine (8-oxodA), and(More)
This study was designed to establish the TP53 mutational spectrum of aristolochic acid (AA), examined in the context of endemic (Balkan) nephropathy, an environmental disease associated with transitional cell (urothelial) carcinomas of the upper urinary tract (UUC). Tumor tissue was obtained from residents of regions in Bosnia, Croatia and Serbia where(More)
Endemic (Balkan) nephropathy is a chronic tubulointerstitial disease frequently accompanied by urothelial cell carcinomas of the upper urinary tract. This disorder has recently been linked to exposure to aristolochic acid, a powerful nephrotoxin and human carcinogen. Following metabolic activation, aristolochic acid reacts with genomic DNA to form(More)