Arthur P. Grollman

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FapydG is a common oxidative DNA lesion involving opening of the imidazole ring. It shares the same precursor as 8-oxodG and can be excised by the same enzymes as 8-oxodG. However, the loss of the aromatic imidazole in FapydG results in a reduction of the double bond character between C5 and N7, with an accompanying increase in conformational flexibility.(More)
Aristolochic acids I and II (AA-I, AA-II) are found in all Aristolochia species. Ingestion of these acids either in the form of herbal remedies or as contaminated wheat flour causes a dose-dependent chronic kidney failure characterized by renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis. In approximately 50% of these cases, the condition is accompanied by an upper urinary(More)
Exposure to aristolochic acid (AA), a component of Aristolochia plants used in herbal remedies, is associated with chronic kidney disease and urothelial carcinomas of the upper urinary tract. Following metabolic activation, AA reacts with dA and dG residues in DNA to form aristolactam (AL)-DNA adducts. These mutagenic lesions generate a unique TP53 mutation(More)
DNA polymerase b (polb), a member of the X family of DNA polymerases, is the major polymerase in the base excision repair pathway. Using in vitro selection, we obtained RNA aptamers for polb from a variable pool of 8 3 10 12 individual RNA sequences containing 30 random nucleotides. A total of 60 individual clones selected after seven rounds were screened(More)
Escherichia coli endonuclease VIII (Nei) excises oxidized pyrimidines from DNA. It shares significant sequence homology and similar mechanism with Fpg, a bacterial 8-oxoguanine glycosylase. The structure of a covalent Nei-DNA complex has been recently determined, revealing critical amino acid residues which are important for DNA binding and catalysis.(More)
Formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg) excises 8-oxoguanine (oxoG) from DNA but ignores normal guanine. We combined molecular dynamics simulation and stopped-flow kinetics with fluorescence detection to track the events in the recognition of oxoG by Fpg and its mutants with a key phenylalanine residue, which intercalates next to the damaged base, changed(More)
The Escherichia coli DNA repair enzyme endonuclease VIII (EndoVIII or Nei) excises oxidized pyrimidines from damaged DNA substrates. It overlaps in substrate specificity with endonuclease III and may serve as a back-up for this enzyme in E. coli. The three-dimensional structure of Nei covalently complexed with DNA has been recently determined, revealing the(More)
Ingestion of aristolochic acids (AAs) contained in herbal remedies results in a renal disease and, frequently, urothelial malignancy. The genotoxicity of AA in renal cells, including mutagenic DNA adducts formation, is well documented. However, the mechanisms of AA-induced tubular atrophy and renal fibrosis are largely unknown. To better elucidate some(More)
Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites, a prominent type of DNA damage, are repaired through the base excision repair mechanism in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes and may interfere with many other cellular processes. A full repertoire of AP site-binding proteins in cells is presently unknown, preventing reliable assessment of harm inflicted by these ubiquitous(More)
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