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Malignant cells, like all actively growing cells, must maintain their telomeres, but genetic mechanisms responsible for telomere maintenance in tumors have only recently been discovered. In particular, mutations of the telomere binding proteins alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) or death-domain associated protein (DAXX) have been(More)
Aristolochic acid, a potent human carcinogen produced by Aristolochia plants, is associated with urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract (UUC). Following metabolic activation, aristolochic acid reacts with DNA to form aristolactam (AL)-DNA adducts. These lesions concentrate in the renal cortex, where they serve as a sensitive and specific biomarker(More)
Endemic (Balkan) nephropathy (EN), a devastating renal disease affecting men and women living in rural areas of Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania, and Serbia, is characterized by its insidious onset, invariable progression to chronic renal failure and a strong association with transitional cell (urothelial) carcinoma of the upper urinary tract. Significant(More)
Aristolochic acids (AAs) are plant-derived nephrotoxins and carcinogens responsible for chronic renal failure and associated urothelial cell cancers in several clinical syndromes known collectively as aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN). Mice provide a useful model for study of AAN because the renal histopathology of AA-treated mice is strikingly similar to(More)
Oxidative damage to DNA, reflected in the formation of 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), may be important in mutagenesis, carcinogenesis and the ageing process. Kuchino et al. studied DNA synthesis on oligodeoxynucleotide templates containing 8-oxodG, concluding that the modified base lacked base pairing specificity and directed misreading of(More)
Formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg) is a DNA repair enzyme that excises oxidized purines from damaged DNA. The Schiff base intermediate formed during this reaction between Escherichia coli Fpg and DNA was trapped by reduction with sodium borohydride, and the structure of the resulting covalently cross-linked complex was determined at a 2.1-A(More)
It has been previously shown both in vivo and in vitro that DNA synthesis past an oxidatively damaged form of guanine, 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), can result in the misincorporation of adenine (A) opposite the 8-oxodG. In this study we show that MutY glycosylase is active on a site-specific, oxidatively damaged A/8-oxoG mispair and that it removes(More)
Ingestion of herbal remedies containing aristolochic acids (AAs) is associated with the development of a syndrome, designated aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN), which is characterized by chronic renal failure, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and urothelial cancer. To distinguish the component(s) of AA responsible for these varied toxic effects, we(More)
This review constitutes an overview of our investigations of aristolochic acid nephropathy, a chronic kidney disease associated with carcinomas of the upper urinary tract. Our studies began by confirming the hypothesis that chronic dietary poisoning by aristolochic acid was responsible for endemic (Balkan) nephropathy. A unique TP53 mutational signature in(More)