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Malignant cells, like all actively growing cells, must maintain their telomeres, but genetic mechanisms responsible for telomere maintenance in tumors have only recently been discovered. In particular, mutations of the telomere binding proteins alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) or death-domain associated protein (DAXX) have been(More)
Oxidative damage to DNA, reflected in the formation of 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), may be important in mutagenesis, carcinogenesis and the ageing process. Kuchino et al. studied DNA synthesis on oligodeoxynucleotide templates containing 8-oxodG, concluding that the modified base lacked base pairing specificity and directed misreading of(More)
Exposure to aristolochic acid (AA), a component of Aristolochia plants used in herbal remedies, is associated with chronic kidney disease and urothelial carcinomas of the upper urinary tract. Following metabolic activation, AA reacts with dA and dG residues in DNA to form aristolactam (AL)-DNA adducts. These mutagenic lesions generate a unique TP53 mutation(More)
Aristolochic acids I and II (AA-I, AA-II) are found in all Aristolochia species. Ingestion of these acids either in the form of herbal remedies or as contaminated wheat flour causes a dose-dependent chronic kidney failure characterized by renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis. In approximately 50% of these cases, the condition is accompanied by an upper urinary(More)
FapydG is a common oxidative DNA lesion involving opening of the imidazole ring. It shares the same precursor as 8-oxodG and can be excised by the same enzymes as 8-oxodG. However, the loss of the aromatic imidazole in FapydG results in a reduction of the double bond character between C5 and N7, with an accompanying increase in conformational flexibility.(More)
Ingestion of aristolochic acids (AAs) contained in herbal remedies results in a renal disease and, frequently, urothelial malignancy. The genotoxicity of AA in renal cells, including mutagenic DNA adducts formation, is well documented. However, the mechanisms of AA-induced tubular atrophy and renal fibrosis are largely unknown. To better elucidate some(More)
TP53 mutation patterns are associated with prognosis of various cancers. This study was designed to investigate the association between TP53 mutation patterns and recurrence patterns in upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) patients. A total of 165 consecutive UTUC patients who underwent nephroureterectomies were enrolled for measuring mutation(More)
DNA polymerase b (polb), a member of the X family of DNA polymerases, is the major polymerase in the base excision repair pathway. Using in vitro selection, we obtained RNA aptamers for polb from a variable pool of 8 3 10 12 individual RNA sequences containing 30 random nucleotides. A total of 60 individual clones selected after seven rounds were screened(More)
Formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg) excises 8-oxoguanine (oxoG) from DNA but ignores normal guanine. We combined molecular dynamics simulation and stopped-flow kinetics with fluorescence detection to track the events in the recognition of oxoG by Fpg and its mutants with a key phenylalanine residue, which intercalates next to the damaged base, changed(More)