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A model of orthographic processing is described that postulates read-out from different information dimensions, determined by variable response criteria set on these dimensions. Performance in a perceptual identification task is simulated as the percentage of trials on which a noisy criterion set on the dimension of single word detector activity is reached.(More)
An analysis of over 40,000 eye fixations made by college students during reading indicates that the frequency of immediately refixating a word following an initial eye fixation on it varies with the location of that fixation. The refixation frequency is lowest near the center of the word, positively accelerating with distance from the center. The data are(More)
A major methodological challenge of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is its high sensitivity to haemodynamic fluctuations in the scalp. Superficial fluctuations contribute on the one hand to the physiological noise of fNIRS, impairing the signal-to-noise ratio, and may on the other hand be erroneously attributed to cerebral changes, leading to(More)
The present study aimed at identifying the neural responses associated with the incidental processing of the emotional valence of single words using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty right-handed participants performed a visual lexical decision task, discriminating between nouns and orthographically and phonologically legal(More)
A novel priming technique is applied in two experiments using an alphabetic decision and a lexical decision task to study effects of repetition, and form-related priming on letter and word recognition. The incremental priming technique consists of a gradual increase of the prime's informational value (operationalized as prime intensity). The minimum(More)
Brain-electric correlates of reading have traditionally been studied with word-by-word presentation, a condition that eliminates important aspects of the normal reading process and precludes direct comparisons between neural activity and oculomotor behavior. In the present study, we investigated effects of word predictability on eye movements (EM) and(More)
The study presented here provides researchers with a revised list of affective German words, the Berlin Affective Word List Reloaded (BAWL-R). This work is an extension of the previously published BAWL (Võ, Jacobs, & Conrad, 2006), which has enabled researchers to investigate affective word processing with highly controlled stimulus material. The lack of(More)
Effects of frequency, predictability, and position of words on event-related potentials were assessed during word-by-word sentence reading in 48 subjects in an early and in a late time window corresponding to P200 and N400. Repeated measures multiple regression analyses revealed a P200 effect in the high-frequency range; also the P200 was larger on words at(More)
Lexical decisions to high- and low-arousal negative words and to low-arousal neutral and positive words were examined in an event-related potentials (ERP) study. Reaction times to positive and high-arousal negative words were shorter than those to neutral (low-arousal) words, whereas those to low-arousal negative words were longer. A similar pattern was(More)