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The three-dimensional morphology of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes was analysed in the isolated intact mature mouse optic nerve, by correlating laser scanning confocal microscopy and camera lucida drawings of single cells, dye-filled with lysinated rhodamine dextran or horseradish peroxidase, respectively. These techniques enabled the entire process field(More)
The NG2 antibody, which recognises an integral membrane chondroitin sulphate, labels a significant population of cells in adult CNS white matter tracts of the rat optic nerve and anterior medullary velum (AMV). Adult NG2+ cells are highly complex with multiple branching processes and we show by EM immunocytochemistry that they extend perinodal processes,(More)
Classic studies have recognized neurons and three glial elements in the central nervous system (CNS) - astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia. The identification of novel glia that specifically express the NG2 chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan (CSPG) raises the possibility of a fifth element. Until recently, all NG2-expressing glia were considered to be(More)
Neurotransmitters released at synapses mediate Ca2+ signaling in astrocytes in CNS grey matter. Here, we show that ATP and glutamate evoke these Ca2+ signals in white matter astrocytes of the mouse optic nerve, a tract that contains neither neuronal cell bodies nor synapses. We further demonstrate that action potentials along white matter axons trigger the(More)
Axon regeneration is arrested in the injured central nervous system (CNS) by axon growth-inhibitory ligands expressed in oligodendrocytes/myelin, NG2-glia, and reactive astrocytes in the lesion and degenerating tracts, and by fibroblasts in scar tissue. Growth cone receptors (Rc) bind inhibitory ligands, activating a Rho-family GTPase intracellular(More)
Activation of purinoceptors by extracellular ATP is an important component of the glial response to injury in the central nervous system (CNS). ATP has been shown to evoke raised cytosolic [Ca(2+)] in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia, the three major glial cell types in the CNS. Glial cells express a heterogenous collection of metabotropic P2Y(More)
Glia in the central nervous system (CNS) express diverse inward rectifying potassium channels (Kir). The major function of Kir is in establishing the high potassium (K+) selectivity of the glial cell membrane and strongly negative resting membrane potential (RMP), which are characteristic physiological properties of glia. The classical property of Kir is(More)
Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) is an essential integrating molecule for multiple proliferation and differentiation signals that regulate cell fate. Here, we have examined the effects of inhibiting GSK3β on the development of oligodendrocytes (OLs) from their oligodendrocyte precursors (OP) in vivo by injection into the lateral ventricle of postnatal(More)
The rat anterior medullary velum (AMV) is representative of the brain and spinal cord, overall, and provides an almost two-dimensional preparation for investigating axon-glial interactions in vivo. Here, we review some of our findings on axon-oligodendrocyte unit relations in our adult, development, and injury paradigms: (1) adult oligodendrocytes are(More)
The taiep rat is a myelin mutant in which initial hypomyelination is followed by progressive demyelination of the CNS. An in vitro study suggests that accumulation of microtubules within oligodendrocytes is the cause of the taiep myelin defects (Song et al., 1999). In this article, we analyze microtubule accumulation in relation to taiep myelin defects in(More)