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A rather unique panel tracking more than 3300 individuals from households in rural Kagera, Tanzania during 1991/4-2010 shows that about 1 out of 2 individuals/households who exited poverty did so by transitioning out of agriculture into the rural nonfarm economy or secondary towns. Only 1 out of 7 exited poverty by migrating to the big cities, even though… (More)
As biomarker discovery takes centre-stage, the role of immunohistochemistry within that process is increasing. At the same time, the number of antibodies being produced for "research use" continues to rise and it is important that antibodies to be used as biomarkers are validated for specificity and sensitivity before use. This guideline seeks to provide a… (More)
The great economist Arthur Lewis emphasized the distinction between traditional agriculture and urban industries. In his view, savings and investment originate solely in the latter, while vast pools of underutilized labor can be found in the traditional sector (Lewis, 1954). In this paper, we aim at filling a gap in his analysis by constructing a model of… (More)
Support for this work was provided by Resources for the Future. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research. At least one co-author has disclosed a financial relationship of potential relevance for this research. NBER working papers are circulated for discussion and… (More)
This year, 2014, marks the 60th anniversary of the publication of Sir W. Arthur Lewis's groundbreaking paper entitled " Economic Development with Unlimited Supplies of Labour ". Compared with most papers written to celebrate Lewis's 1954 paper, which put their emphases on assessments of Lewis's achievements, this one proposes new research to advance Lewis's… (More)
We develop an idea from Arthur Lewis' paper on unlimited supplies of labor to model the long-run behavior of the prices of primary commodity produced by poor countries. Commodity supply is assumed infinitely elastic in the long run, and the rate of growth of supply responds to the excess of the current price over the long-run supply price. Demand is linked… (More)