Arthur L. Roberts

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Although granular iron permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) are increasingly employed to contain subsurface contaminants, information pertaining to system longevity is sparse. The present investigation redresses this situation by examining the long-term effects of carbonate, silica, chloride, and natural organic matter (NOM) on reactivity of Master Builders(More)
The extracellular speciation of mercury may control bacterial uptake and methylation. Mercury-polysulfide complexes have recently been shown to be prevalent in sulfidic waters containing zero-valent sulfur. Despite substantial increases in total dissolved mercury concentration, methylation rates in cultures of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 equilibrated(More)
Although progress has been made toward understanding the surface chemistry of granular iron and the mechanisms through which it attenuates groundwater contaminants, potential long-term changes in the solute transport properties of granular iron media have until now received relatively little attention. As part of column investigations of alterations in the(More)
Although iron-based permeable reactive barriers are gaining importance for treating groundwater contaminants, little is currently known about the effect of cosolutes on barrier longevity. Because of their corrosion inhibiting properties, dissolved silica species are of particular concern. This research investigates the effect of silica on the reduction of(More)
The presence of pharmaceuticals and other wastewater-derived micropollutants in surface and groundwaters is receiving intense public and scientific attention. Yet simple GC/MS methods that would enable measurement of a wide range of such compounds are scarce. This paper describes a GC/MS method for the simultaneous determination of 13 pharmaceuticals(More)
The aqueous chlorination of (chloro)phenols is one of the best-studied reactions in the environmental literature. Previous researchers have attributed these reactions to two chlorine species: HOCl (at circum-neutral and high pH) and H2OCl+ (at low pH). In this study, we seek to examine the roles that two largely overlooked chlorine species, Cl2 and Cl2O,(More)
Cl(2) and Cl(2)O are highly reactive electrophiles capable of influencing rates of disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursor chlorination in solutions of free available chlorine (FAC). The current work examines how organic compound structure influences susceptibility toward chlorination by Cl(2) and Cl(2)O relative to the more abundant (but less reactive)(More)
HOCl is often assumed to represent the active oxidant in solutions of free available chlorine (FAC). We present evidence that Cl(2)O and Cl(2) can play a greater role than HOCl during chlorination of the herbicide dimethenamid. Reaction orders in [FAC] were determined at various solution conditions and ranged from 1.10 +/- 0.13 to 1.78 +/- 0.22, consistent(More)
Attempts to develop quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for reductive dehalogenation by granular iron have been hindered by the unavailability of high quality predictor variables, have included relatively few compounds, and on occasion have relied on data lacking internal consistency. We herein investigate the reduction of 24 alkyl(More)
Recent studies have revealed the presence of neutral degradates of chloroacetamide herbicides in the Chesapeake Bay at concentrations greatly in excess of the parent compounds. As some degradates are being considered for regulation in drinking water, exposure of human populations to such micropollutants is of interest. Here we report the results of a survey(More)