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The Nordic countries have a long tradition of large-scale biobanking and comprehensive, population-based health data registries linkable on unique personal identifiers, enabling follow-up studies spanning many decades. Joint Nordic biobank-based studies provide unique opportunities for longitudinal molecular epidemiological research. The purpose of the(More)
Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a serious disease with 10-20% mortality and high rate of neuropsychiatric sequelae. This study is a long-term, nationwide study in a single country, Iceland. Clinical data were obtained from patient records and from DNA PCR and antibody assays of CSF. Diagnosis of HSE was classified as definite, possible or rejected(More)
The importance of each of the two surface glycoproteins of measles virus in active and passive immunization was examined in mice. Infected-cell lysates were depleted of either the hemagglutinin (H) or fusion (F) glycoprotein by using multiple cycles of immunoaffinity chromatography. The products were used to prepare immune-stimulating complexes (iscoms)(More)
Monoclonal antibodies directed against four structural components of the ATCC strain C243 of parainfluenza virus type 3 were produced. The specific reaction of the antibodies with individual structural components was determined by radioimmune precipitation assay. In the collection of monoclonal antibodies, 21 reacted with the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase(More)
The pandemic influenza of 1918 (Spanish flu) killed 21-50 million people globally, including in Iceland, where the characteristics and spread of the epidemic were well documented. It has been postulated that genetic host factors may have contributed to this high mortality. We identified 455 individuals who died of the Spanish flu in Iceland during a 6-week(More)
A total of 63 HIV-1 strains collected in Iceland during the years 1989-96 were typed into serotypes A-E using a peptide-based enzyme immunoassay. The majority of the strains were of serotype B (66.6%). 22.2% were untypeable by this method. Until 1993 only serotype B was found, but in 1993 and after that date other serotypes, especially E (7.9%) were(More)
Detailed, country-specific epidemiological data are needed to characterize the burden of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection around the world. With new treatment options available, policy makers and public health officials must reconsider national strategies for infection control. In this study of 15 countries, published and unpublished data on HCV(More)
According to antibody analysis, approximately two of every three intravenous drug users in Iceland have become infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). In this study, serum samples from 55 HCV antibody-positive intravenous drug users (39 males and 16 females) were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction, and the viral strains were grouped into genotypes. Only(More)
The B cell response against measles and herpes simplex virus (HSV) was evaluated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood from patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and controls by enumeration of cells secreting anti-measles and anti-HSV antibodies of IgG, IgA and IgM isotypes. We used a nitrocellulose immunospot assay which enables parallel(More)