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Biomass represents an abundant carbon-neutral renewable resource for the production of bioenergy and biomaterials, and its enhanced use would address several societal needs. Advances in genetics, biotechnology, process chemistry, and engineering are leading to a new manufacturing concept for converting renewable biomass to valuable fuels and products,(More)
BACKGROUND The thermophilic anaerobe Clostridium thermocellum is a candidate consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) biocatalyst for cellulosic ethanol production. The aim of this study was to investigate C. thermocellum genes required to ferment biomass substrates and to conduct a robust comparison of DNA microarray and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analytical(More)
Switchgrass is a leading dedicated bioenergy feedstock in the United States because it is a native, high-yielding, perennial prairie grass with a broad cultivation range and low agronomic input requirements. Biomass conversion research has developed processes for production of ethanol and other biofuels, but they remain costly primarily because of the(More)
Although economically efficient biomass conversion depends on the utilization of the complete cell wall (biorefinery concept), including polysaccharides and lignin, current biofuels research concentrate mostly on cellulose conversion, while lignin is viewed as a side-product that is used primarily as a thermal resource. Microbiological conversion of lignin(More)
BACKGROUND Lignocellulosic biomass is one of the most promising renewable and clean energy resources to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on fossil fuels. However, the resistance to accessibility of sugars embedded in plant cell walls (so-called recalcitrance) is a major barrier to economically viable cellulosic ethanol production. A recent(More)
To reduce the recalcitrance and enhance enzymatic activity, dilute H(2)SO(4) pretreatment was carried out on Alamo switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). Ball-milled lignin was isolated from switchgrass before and after pretreatment. Its structure was characterized by (13)C, HSQC, and (31)P NMR spectroscopy. It was confirmed that ball-milled switchgrass lignin is(More)
Microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) was subjected to three different pretreatments (acid, alkaline, and organosolv) before exposure to a mixture of cellulases (Celluclast). Addition of beta-glucosidase, to avoid the well-known inhibition of cellulase by cellobiose, markedly accelerated cellulose hydrolysis up to a ratio of activity units(More)
Fully bleached softwood kraft pulps were hydrolyzed with cellulase (1,4-(1,3:1,4)-beta-D-glucan 4-glucano-hydrolase, EC from Trichoderma reesei. Supra-molecular structural features of cellulose during enzymatic hydrolysis were examined by using CP/MAS 13C NMR spectra in combination with line-fitting analysis. Different types of cellulose allomorphs(More)
Ethanol organosolv pretreatment was performed on Loblolly pine to enhance the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose. Solid-state (13)C NMR spectroscopy coupled with line shape analysis was used to determine the structure and crystallinity of cellulose isolated from pretreated and enzyme-hydrolyzed Loblolly pine. The results indicate(More)
Hydrothermal pretreatment was performed on the leaves and internodes portions of Alamo switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L., to enhance the digestibility of cellulose towards cellulase. It was observed that extractives free leaves portion provided 18.1% lower pretreatment gravimetrical yield and 33.8% greater cellulose-to-glucose yield than internodes portion.(More)