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A novel and robust automated docking method that predicts the bound conformations of flexible ligands to macromolecular targets has been developed and tested, in combination with a new scoring function that estimates the free energy change upon binding. Interestingly, this method applies a Lamarckian model of genetics, in which environmental adaptations of(More)
We describe the testing and release of AutoDock4 and the accompanying graphical user interface AutoDockTools. AutoDock4 incorporates limited flexibility in the receptor. Several tests are reported here, including a redocking experiment with 188 diverse ligand-protein complexes and a cross-docking experiment using flexible sidechains in 87 HIV protease(More)
AutoDock Vina, a new program for molecular docking and virtual screening, is presented. AutoDock Vina achieves an approximately two orders of magnitude speed-up compared with the molecular docking software previously developed in our lab (AutoDock 4), while also significantly improving the accuracy of the binding mode predictions, judging by our tests on(More)
The authors describe the development and testing of a semiempirical free energy force field for use in AutoDock4 and similar grid-based docking methods. The force field is based on a comprehensive thermodynamic model that allows incorporation of intramolecular energies into the predicted free energy of binding. It also incorporates a charge-based method for(More)
Because of their wide use in molecular modeling, methods to compute molecular surfaces have received a lot of interest in recent years. However, most of the proposed algorithms compute the analytical representation of only the solvent-accessible surface. There are a few programs that compute the analytical representation of the solvent-excluded surface, but(More)
AutoDock 2.4 predicts the bound conformations of a small, flexible ligand to a nonflexible macromolecular target of known structure. The technique combines simulated annealing for conformation searching with a rapid grid-based method of energy evaluation based on the AMBER force field. AutoDock has been optimized in performance without sacrificing accuracy;(More)
In this paper we define the r-reduced surface of a set of n spheres representing a molecule in relation to the r-accessible and r-exchtded surfaces. Algorithms are given to compute the outer component of the r-reduced surface in O[rdogn] operations and the analytical description of the corresponding r-excluded surface in time O[n]. An algorithm to handle(More)
The evolving technology of computer auto-fabrication ("3-D printing") now makes it possible to produce physical models for complex biological molecules and assemblies. We report on an application that demonstrates the use of auto-fabricated tangible models and augmented reality for research and education in molecular biology, and for enhancing the(More)
One of the challenges in biocomputing is to enable the efficient use of a wide variety of fast-evolving computational methods to simulate, analyze, and understand the complex properties and interactions of molecular systems. Our laboratory investigates several areas including molecular visualization, protein-ligand docking, protein-protein docking,(More)
The W191G cavity of cytochrome c peroxidase is useful as a model system for introducing small molecule oxidation in an artificially created cavity. A set of small, cyclic, organic cations was previously shown to bind in the buried, solvent-filled pocket created by the W191G mutation. We docked these ligands and a set of non-binders in the W191G cavity using(More)