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BACKGROUND For many years it has been claimed that observational studies find stronger treatment effects than randomized, controlled trials. We compared the results of observational studies with those of randomized, controlled trials. METHODS We searched the Abridged Index Medicus and Cochrane data bases to identify observational studies reported between(More)
OBJECTIVE The available data on antidepressant levels in nursing infants were analyzed in order to calculate average infant drug levels and determine what factors influence plasma drug levels in breast-feeding infants of mothers treated with antidepressants. METHOD Electronic searches of MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, Current Contents, Biological Abstracts, and(More)
The importance of body fat distribution as a predictor of metabolic aberrations was evaluated in 9 nonobese and 25 obese, apparently healthy women. Plasma glucose and insulin levels during oral glucose loading were significantly higher in women with predominantly upper body segment obesity than in women with lower body segment obesity. Of the former group,(More)
Recurrence of carcinoma of the breast after radical mastectomy was associated with preoperative body weight among patients observed for up to 24 years. Patients who had no axillary lymph node metastases and who weighed 130 pounds or less had an accumulative recurrence free survival superior to that of heavier patients. The advantage was unassociated with(More)
The Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) publishes hospital mortality rates each year. We undertook a study to identify characteristics of hospitals associated with variations in these rates. To do so, we obtained data on 3100 hospitals from the 1986 HCFA mortality study and the American Hospital Association's 1986 annual survey of hospitals. The(More)
Most epidemiologic studies which evaluate the association between obesity and disease consider only total adipose tissue and ignore its distribution. The present study used data from a national survey of women in TOPS (a weight reduction organization) in 1969. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the distribution of adipose tissue as a risk factor for(More)
BACKGROUND Homelessness is believed to be a cause of health problems and high medical costs, but data supporting this association have been difficult to obtain. We compared lengths of stay and reasons for hospital admission among homeless and other low-income persons in New York City to estimate the hospitalization costs associated with homelessness. (More)
En bloc excision is a technique in which fibrovascular diabetic membranes and the posterior hyaloid are separated from the retina as a single unit. In a consecutive series of 69 eyes with diabetic traction retinal detachment treated with this technique, initial retinal reattachment was accomplished in 100% (69/69) of the eyes. With a minimum of 6 months'(More)
This was a prospective, cluster randomized controlled trial in patients with uncontrolled hypertension aged 21 to 85 years (mean, 61 years). Pharmacists made recommendations to physicians for patients in the intervention clinics (n=101) but not patients in the control clinics (n=78). The mean adjusted difference in systolic blood pressure (BP) between the(More)
Data from a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study of women was undertaken to determine factors associated with the anatomic distribution of body fat. The women studied were members of TOPS, Inc. (Take Off Pounds Sensibly), a non-profit organization dedicated to weight reduction. Recent evidence suggests that anatomic location of body fat has prognostic(More)