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OBJECTIVE The available data on antidepressant levels in nursing infants were analyzed in order to calculate average infant drug levels and determine what factors influence plasma drug levels in breast-feeding infants of mothers treated with antidepressants. METHOD Electronic searches of MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, Current Contents, Biological Abstracts, and(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic fatigue greatly affects quality of life and is a common reason for physician visits. Patients with chronic fatigue are often treated with antidepressants. METHOD Prior to enrollment, all subjects had substantial fatigue for 6 months or more that was not explained by depression, organic illness, or lifestyle behaviors. Patients already(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic fatigue greatly affects quality of life and is a common reason for consulting a physician. Since conventional therapy is often of limited help, fatigued patients may use herbal treatments. This randomized controlled trial evaluated the effectiveness of Siberian ginseng. METHOD Subjects were recruited from advertisements in Iowa (82%)(More)
OBJECTIVES This study tested whether clinical experiences in family practice are associated with matching into family practice. METHODS We conducted a prospective cohort study of 913 medical students who completed the Family Practice Preceptorship (FPP) at the University of Iowa from 1990-1996. Using univariate techniques and logistic regression, we(More)
This study evaluated unexplained symptoms in primary care from the perspective of both patients and physicians. The data were obtained from two 1998 statewide surveys, one targeting Medicaid patients and the other all primary care physicians in the state. There were 439 patients who responded (45% response rate) and 280 primary care physicians who responded(More)
PURPOSE To identify surgeon characteristics associated with mortality or morbidity, following carotid endarterectomy (CEA). METHODS Data on all inpatient discharges from the 284 nonfederal Pennsylvania hospitals were obtained from the Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment Council for the period from 1994 to 1995. Physician data were obtained from the(More)
BACKGROUND Unexplained chronic fatigue is a frequent complaint in primary care. A prospective observational study design was used to evaluate whether certain commonly used therapies for unexplained chronic fatigue may be effective. METHOD Subjects with unexplained chronic fatigue of unknown etiology for at least 6 months were recruited from the Wisconsin(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies have assessed the validity of the observational study design by comparing results of studies using this design to results from randomized controlled trials. The present study examined design features of observational studies that could have influenced these comparisons. METHODS To find at least 4 observational studies that(More)
OBJECTIVES The present study assessed more than 800 potential risk factors to identify new predictors of breast cancer and compare the independence and relative importance of established risk factors. METHODS Data were collected by the Women's Health Initiative and included 147,202 women ages 50 to 79 who were enrolled from 1993 to 1998 and followed for 8(More)
Prospective data from the Women’s Health Initiative were analyzed to evaluate more than 800 possible risk factors for an association with colon cancer in postmenopausal women. Data included 150,912 postmenopausal women between the ages of 50 and 79. The Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to identify risk factors independently associated(More)