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We consider the scenario where training and test data are drawn from different distributions, commonly referred to as sample selection bias. Most algorithms for this setting try to first recover sampling distributions and then make appropriate corrections based on the distribution estimate. We present a nonparametric method which directly produces… (More)

We propose a framework for analyzing and comparing distributions, allowing us to design statistical tests to determine if two samples are drawn from different distributions. Our test statistic is the largest difference in expectations over functions in the unit ball of a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS). We present two tests based on large deviation… (More)

We propose an independence criterion based on the eigenspectrum of covariance operators in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHSs), consisting of an empirical estimate of the Hilbert-Schmidt norm of the cross-covariance operator (we term this a Hilbert-Schmidt Independence Criterion, or HSIC). This approach has several advantages, compared with previous… (More)

- Arthur Gretton, Karsten M. Borgwardt, Malte J. Rasch, Bernhard Schölkopf, Alexander J. Smola
- Journal of Machine Learning Research
- 2012

We propose a framework for analyzing and comparing distributions, which we use to construct statistical tests to determine if two samples are drawn from different distributions. Our test statistic is the largest difference in expectations over functions in the unit ball of a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS), and is called the maximum mean discrepancy… (More)

MOTIVATION
Many problems in data integration in bioinformatics can be posed as one common question: Are two sets of observations generated by the same distribution? We propose a kernel-based statistical test for this problem, based on the fact that two distributions are different if and only if there exists at least one function having different expectation… (More)

The Google search engine has enjoyed huge success with its web page ranking algorithm, which exploits global, rather than local, hyperlink structure of the web using random walks. Here we propose a simple universal ranking algorithm for data lying in the Euclidean space, such as text or image data. The core idea of our method is to rank the data with… (More)

- Alexander J. Smola, Arthur Gretton, Le Song, Bernhard Schölkopf
- Discovery Science
- 2007

We describe a technique for comparing distributions without the need for density estimation as an intermediate step. Our approach relies on mapping the distributions into a reproducing kernel Hilbert space. Applications of this technique can be found in two-sample tests, which are used for determining whether two sets of observations arise from the same… (More)

- Arthur Gretton, Alex Smola, Jiayuan Huang, Marcel Schmittfull, Karsten M. Borgwardt, Bernhard Schölkopf
- 2008

Given sets of observations of training and test data, we consider the problem of re-weighting the training data such that its distribution more closely matches that of the test data. We achieve this goal by matching covariate distributions between training and test sets in a high dimensional feature space (specifically, a reproducing kernel Hilbert space).… (More)

Although kernel measures of independence have been widely applied in machine learning (notably in kernel ICA), there is as yet no method to determine whether they have detected statistically significant dependence. We provide a novel test of the independence hypothesis for one particular kernel independence measure, the Hilbert-Schmidt independence… (More)

- Bharath K. Sriperumbudur, Arthur Gretton, Kenji Fukumizu, Bernhard Schölkopf, Gert R. G. Lanckriet
- Journal of Machine Learning Research
- 2010

A Hilbert space embedding for probability measures has recently been proposed, with applications including dimensionality reduction, homogeneity testing, and independence testing. This embedding represents any probability measure as a mean element in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS). A pseudometric on the space of probability measures can be… (More)