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The polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify the staphylococcal enterotoxin B and C genes (entB and entC1) and the staphylococcal nuclease gene (nuc). Two sets of primers ("nested primers") were found to be necessary for the detection of low copy numbers of purified DNA in diluent. These allowed detection of ca. 1 fg of purified target DNA, while 100(More)
A constant-depth film fermenter (CDFF) was used to culture a steady-state multispecies biofilm consisting of one strain each of Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas fragi and Staphylococcus xylosus. These bacteria were initially grown together in a conventional chemostat to achieve a steady state before being inoculated into the CDFF over an 18-h period. A(More)
The 10-mer primer OPM-01 (5'-GTT GGT GGC T-3') was used to generate random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles by polymerase chain reaction for 91 strains of Listeria monocytogenes from raw milk, food, and veterinary, medical, and food-environmental sources. The profiles obtained contained 1 to 10 bands within the molecular size range of 0.5 to(More)
Three strains of Listeria monocytogenes (NCTC 1194, a poultry isolate and the Scott A strain) were exposed to a range of pressures (300, 350, 375, 400 and 450 MPa) in 10 mmol 1(-1) phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at pH 7.0 for up to 30 min at ambient temperature. Generally, increasing the magnitude and duration of compression resulted in increasing levels(More)
The incidence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in a poultry processing plant and in raw and cooked poultry products was determined over a 6-month period. Within the raw and cooked poultry processing environments, 46% (36 of 79) and 29% (51 of 173) of the samples contained Listeria spp. while 26% (21 of 79) and 15% (27 of 173) contained L.(More)
A total of 289 Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from a poultry-processing environment and poultry products over a 6-month period were characterized by random amplification of polymorphic DNA, (RAPD) to pinpoint sources of contamination within the plant and gain some measure of the persistence of individual genotypes within this environment. Eighteen(More)
A year-long survey of two Northern Ireland milk processing plants for Listeria monocytogenes was carried out. Sample sites included the milk processing environment (walls, floors, drains, and steps), processing equipment, raw and pasteurised milk. The FDA listeria-selective enrichment procedure was used to process samples and an additional agar medium, L.(More)
Multiple bands of alpha-naphthyl-propionyl esterase (alpha NPE) activity observed following starch gel electrophoresis of cell extracts allowed 219 Listeria monocytogenes isolates from milk, nondairy foods, and clinical and veterinary sources to be assigned to 17 different alpha NPE types. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE) analysis was used to obtain(More)
Samples of raw milk were examined for counts of somatic cells, total viable bacteria, staphylococci (Schleifer & Kramer's medium) and Staphylococcus aureus (Baird-Parker medium, Baird-Parker medium with pig plasma and Baird-Parker medium with additional antibiotics). For the isolation of staphylococci from raw milk, Schleifer & Kramer's medium was found to(More)
When a microtitre plate assay was used to quantify biofilm production by Listeria monocytogenes strains following growth in Tryptone Soy Broth (TSB) for 48 h at 20 degrees C, 127 of 138 strains (92.0%) were classified as weak, 9 of 138 strains (6.5%) as moderate and only 2 of 138 strains (1.5%) as strong biofilm formers. The strains included environmental,(More)