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The IS0 9241, Part 9 Draft International Standard for testingcomputer pointing devices proposes an evaluation of performance andcomfort. In this paper we evaluate the scientific validity andpracticality of these dimensions for two pointing devices forlaptop computers, a finger-controlled isometric joystick and atouchpad. Using a between-subjects design,(More)
This paper describes a benchmark task for evaluating the usability of haptic environments for a shape perception task. The task measures the ease with which observers can recognize members of a standard set of five shapes defined by Koenderink. Median time for 12 participants to recognize these shapes with the PHANToM was 23 seconds. This recognition time(More)
The goal of this research was to evaluate two different stack mode layouts for 3D medical images—a regular stack mode layout where just the topmost image was visible, and a new stack mode layout, which included the images just before and after the main image. We developed stripped down user interfaces to test the techniques, and designed a look-alike(More)
Visual information is important in surgeons' manipulative performance especially in laparoscopic surgery where tactual feedback is less than in open surgery. The study of surgeons' eye movements is an innovative way of assessing skill, in that a comparison of the eye movement strategies between expert surgeons and novices may show important differences that(More)
We describe a series of experiments that compare 2D displays, 3D displays, and combined 2D/3D displays (orientation icon, ExoVis, and clip planes) for relative position estimation, orientation, and volume of interest tasks. Our results indicate that 3D displays can be very effective for approximate navigation and relative positioning when appropriate cues,(More)
The Body Centered Cubic (BCC) and Face Centered Cubic (FCC) lattices along with a set of box splines for sampling and reconstruction of trivariate functions are proposed. The BCC lattice is demonstrated to be the optimal choice of a pattern for generic sampling purposes. While the FCC lattice is the second best choice for this purpose, both FCC and BCC(More)
We compare 2D/3D combination displays to displays with 2D and 3D views alone. Combination displays we consider are: orientation icon (i.e., side-by-side), in-place methods (e.g., clip planes), and a new method called ExoVis. We specifically analyze performance differences (i.e., time and accuracy) for 3D orientation and relative position tasks. Empirical(More)
This paper presents a user study of the visual quality of an imaging pipeline employing the optimal body-centered cubic (BCC) sampling lattice. We provide perceptual evidence supporting the theoretical expectation that sampling and reconstruction on the BCC lattice offer superior imaging quality over the traditionally popular Cartesian cubic (CC) sampling(More)
Three interaction techniques were evaluated for scrolling stack mode displays of volumetric data. Two used a scroll-wheel mouse: one used only the wheel, while another used a "click and drag" technique for fast scrolling, leaving the wheel for fine adjustments. The third technique used a Shuttle Xpress jog wheel. In a within-subjects design, nine(More)