Arthur D. Riggs

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Analysis of the 3'-ends of approximately 900 separate human LINE-1 (L1) elements from primates revealed 47 contiguous but distinct subfamilies with the L1 family. Eight previously described medium reiteration frequency sequences (MERs) were found to be parts of ancient L1 untranslated 3'-regions which show little or no sequence similarity to the presently(More)
X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is an essential mechanism for dosage compensation of X-linked genes in female cells. We report that subcultures from lines of female human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) exhibit variation (0-100%) for XCI markers, including XIST RNA expression and enrichment of histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) on the inactive X(More)
In most higher organisms, DNA is modified after synthesis by the enzymatic conversion of many cytosine residues to 5-methylcytosine. For several years, control of gene activity by DNA methylation has been recognized as a logically attractive possibility, but experimental support has proved elusive. However, there is now reason to believe, from recent(More)
Short Interspersed Nucleotide Elements (SINEs) are highly abundant in mammalian genomes. The term SINE has come to be restricted to short retroposons with internal RNA polymerase III promoter sites in a region derived from a structural RNA (usually a tRNA). Here we describe a novel, 260 bp tRNA-derived SINE, some fragments of which have been noted before to(More)
DNA CpG methylation can cooperate with histone H3 lysine 9 (H3-K9) methylation in heterochromatin formation and gene silencing. Trimethylation of H3-K9 by the recently identified euchromatic histone methyltransferase SETDB1/ESET may be responsible for transcriptional repression of certain promoters. Here, we show that SETDB1 associates with endogenous DNA(More)
A model based on DNA methylation is proposed to explain the initiation and maintenance of mammalian X inactivation and certain aspects of other permanent events in eukaryotic cell differentiation. A key feature of the model is the proposal of sequence-specific DNA methylases that methylate unmethylated sites with great difficulty but easily methylate(More)
The mouse Snrpn gene encodes the Smn protein, which is involved in RNA splicing. The gene maps to a region in the central part of chromosome 7 that is syntenic to the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndromes (PWS-AS) region on human chromosome 15q11-q13. The mouse gene, like its human counterpart, is imprinted and paternally expressed, primarily in brain and heart.(More)
To determine mechanistically how siRNAs mediate transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) in human cells, we have measured histone methylation at targeted promoters, the dependency on active transcription, and whether or not both strands of the siRNA are required for siRNA-mediated TGS. We report here that siRNA treatment increases both H3K9 and H3K27(More)
Cell type-specific DNA methylation patterns are established during mammalian development and maintained in adult somatic cells. Understanding how these patterns of 5-methylcytosine are established and maintained requires the elucidation of mechanisms for both DNA methylation and demethylation. The enzymes involved in the de novo methylation of DNA and the(More)
Using a methylated-DNA enrichment technique (methylated CpG island recovery assay, MIRA) in combination with whole-genome tiling arrays, we have characterized by MIRA-chip the entire B cell "methylome" of an individual human at 100-bp resolution. We find that at the chromosome level high CpG methylation density is correlated with subtelomeric regions and(More)