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The projections from the brainstem to the midline and intralaminar thalamic nuclei were examined in the rat. Stereotaxic injections of the retrograde tracer cholera toxin beta -subunit (CTb) were made in each of the intralaminar nuclei of the dorsal thalamus: the lateral parafascicular, medial parafascicular, central lateral, paracentral, oval paracentral,(More)
The projections of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT) were studied in the rat using anterograde and retrograde transport methods. Ascending fibers to the substantia nigra, the subthalamic nucleus, the globus pallidus, the entopeduncular nucleus, the neostriatum, the ventral thalamus, and the medial and sulcal frontal cortical areas were(More)
The efferent connections of the parabrachial nucleus have been analyzed in the rat using the anterograde autoradiographic method. Fibers originating from the lateral parabrachial nucleus (PBl) ascend in the periventricular system, the dorsal tegmental bundle and the central tegmental tract. The PBl projects to the dorsal raphe nucleus, the superior central(More)
The segmental distribution of sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPNs) and dorsal root ganglion cells (DRGs) was studied after Fluoro-gold injections into the major sympathetic ganglia and adrenal gland in rats. A quantitative assessment of the segmental and nuclear locations was made. Four general patterns of innervation were apparent: (1) a large number(More)
The CNS cell groups that innervate the sympathoadrenal preganglionic neurons of rats were identified by a transneuronal viral cell body labeling technique combined with neurotransmitter immunohistochemistry. Pseudorabies virus was injected into the adrenal gland. This resulted in retrograde viral infections of the ipsilateral sympathetic preganglionic(More)
Sodium appetite, the behavioural drive to ingest salt, is stimulated by prolonged physiological sodium deficiency in many animal species. The same neural mechanisms that are responsible for sodium appetite in laboratory animals may influence human behaviour as well, with particular relevance to the dietary salt intake of patients with diseases such as heart(More)
In the rat, approximately 20% of total body heat-loss occurs by sympathetically mediated increases in blood flow through an elaborate system of arteriovenous anastomoses in the skin of its tail. In this study, the CNS cell groups that regulate this sympathetic outflow were identified by the viral transneuronal labeling method. Pseudorabies virus was(More)
The ventrolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTvl) receives direct input from two specific subpopulations of neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). It is heavily innervated by aldosterone-sensitive NTS neurons, which are selectively activated by sodium depletion, and by the A2 noradrenergic neurons, which are activated by visceral and(More)