Arthur C. Upton

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ii PREFACE In November 1997, a draft version of this report (dated October 1997) was submitted by the Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (ORIA) to EPA's Science Advisory Board (SAB) for review. receive briefings from ORIA staff and interested members of the public and to discuss the relevant issues. Chair of the URRS. The SAB approved ORIA's approach to(More)
The types of injury attributable to ionizing radiation are subdivided, for purposes of risk assessment and radiological protection, into two broad categories: stochastic effects and nonstochastic effects. Stochastic effects are viewed as probablistic phenomena, varying in frequency but not severity as a function of the dose, without any threshold;(More)
The science of toxicology has traditionally concerned itself with the biological effects of substances administered singly, and the results of such studies form our most important data base. When chemicals enter the environment, however, they form mixtures that vary in time and place, both qualitatively and quantitatively, to produce an infinite variety of(More)
Enhancement of CCNU cytotoxicity by misonidazole (MISO) was studied in three tumours and two normal tissues in the mouse. The 3 experimental tumours (SCCVII/St, EMT6 and KHT) showed very different sensitivities to CCNU alone, but MISO enhanced the cell killing in ech case. The effect was not always dose-modifying, so that the CCNU dose range for the(More)
The Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office of Cincinnati, of the US Environmental Protection Agency, is engaged in the development of risk assessment guidelines and methodologies as part of the regulatory programme of the Agency. The primary goal of the Agency was originally to accurately assess the effects of human exposure to single chemicals in a(More)
Effects of pollutant mixtures on interactions between species (symbiosis, predation, herbivory, parasitism, and competition) and methods for measuring those effects are critically reviewed. While numerous field studies have shown that responses to pollutants are mediated or modified by species interactions, the relative importance of direct effects on(More)
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