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An obstacle to the use of graphene as an alternative to silicon electronics has been the absence of an energy gap between its conduction and valence bands, which makes it difficult to achieve low power dissipation in the OFF state. We report a bipolar field-effect transistor that exploits the low density of states in graphene and its one-atomic-layer(More)
Superlattices have attracted great interest because their use may make it possible to modify the spectra of two-dimensional electron systems and, ultimately, create materials with tailored electronic properties. In previous studies (see, for example, refs 1-8), it proved difficult to realize superlattices with short periodicities and weak disorder, and most(More)
The isolation of various two-dimensional (2D) materials, and the possibility to combine them in vertical stacks, has created a new paradigm in materials science: heterostructures based on 2D crystals. Such a concept has already proven fruitful for a number of electronic applications in the area of ultrathin and flexible devices. Here, we expand the range of(More)
Raman spectroscopy is able to probe disorder in graphene through defect-activated peaks. It is of great interest to link these features to the nature of disorder. Here we present a detailed analysis of the Raman spectra of graphene containing different type of defects. We found that the intensity ratio of the D and D' peak is maximum (∼13) for(More)
The chemical stability of graphene and other free-standing two-dimensional crystals means that they can be stacked in different combinations to produce a new class of functional materials, designed for specific device applications. Here we report resonant tunnelling of Dirac fermions through a boron nitride barrier, a few atomic layers thick, sandwiched(More)
Employing a scanning tunneling microscopy based beak junction technique and mechanically controlled break junction experiments, we investigated tolane (diphenylacetylene)-type single molecular junctions having four different anchoring groups (SH, pyridyl (PY), NH(2), and CN) at a solid/liquid interface. The combination of current-distance and(More)
The celebrated electronic properties of graphene have opened the way for materials just one atom thick to be used in the post-silicon electronic era. An important milestone was the creation of heterostructures based on graphene and other two-dimensional crystals, which can be assembled into three-dimensional stacks with atomic layer precision. Such layered(More)
The advent of graphene and related 2D materials has recently led to a new technology: heterostructures based on these atomically thin crystals. The paradigm proved itself extremely versatile and led to rapid demonstration of tunnelling diodes with negative differential resistance, tunnelling transistors, photovoltaic devices and so on. Here, we take the(More)
Graphene is increasingly explored as a possible platform for developing novel separation technologies. This interest has arisen because it is a maximally thin membrane that, once perforated with atomic accuracy, may allow ultrafast and highly selective sieving of gases, liquids, dissolved ions and other species of interest. However, a perfect graphene(More)
Recent developments in the technology of van der Waals heterostructures made from two-dimensional atomic crystals have already led to the observation of new physical phenomena, such as the metal-insulator transition and Coulomb drag, and to the realization of functional devices, such as tunnel diodes, tunnel transistors and photovoltaic sensors. An(More)