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Microsatellites have been widely used to reconstruct human evolution. However, the efficient use of these markers relies on information regarding the process producing the observed variation. Here, we present a novel approach to the locus-by-locus characterization of this process. By analyzing somatic mutations in cancer patients, we estimated the(More)
Pasteurized and raw milks that had been inoculated at 10(4) cfu/ml with bioluminescent strains of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were used in the manufacture of Camembert and Feta cheeses with or without nisin-producing starter culture. Survival of both organisms was determined during the manufacture and storage of Camembert and Feta(More)
The historical process by which a soil conservation strategy has evolved within the UK forestry industry is briefly reviewed. Particular attention is given to the development of practical and effective guidelines to prevent both soil damage and sediment entering water courses. It is concluded that the 'Forest and Water Guidelines', together with other(More)
The ability of Salmonella Enteritidis to survive in the presence of phage, SJ2, during manufacture, ripening, and storage of Cheddar cheese produced from raw and pasteurized milk was investigated. Raw milk and pasteurized milk were inoculated to contain 10(4) CFU/ml of a luminescent strain of Salmonella Enteritidis (lux) and 10(8) PFU/ml SJ2 phage. The(More)
Raw milk is a well-established vehicle for the carriage of human pathogens, and many regulatory bodies have consequently mandated compulsory pasteurization as a food safety intervention. The residual activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) has historically been used to verify the adequacy of pasteurization of cow's milk. However, there is uncertainty on how(More)
  • Art Hill
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society of London…
  • 1982
A theory is advanced that volume transfer across a membrane pore during osmosis takes place in two modes: if solute is sterically excluded from the pore a pressure gradient is set up and viscous flow of solvent results; if solute can enter the pore then osmotic flow is a diffusive phenomenon, and there is no pressure gradient in any part of the pore to(More)
The rapid consumption and obsolescence of electronics have resulted in e-waste being one of the fastest growing waste streams worldwide. Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are among the most complex e-waste, containing significant quantities of hazardous and toxic materials leading to high levels of pollution if landfilled or processed inappropriately. However,(More)
A fast protein liquid chromatography system was used to fractionate the major proteins of sweet and acid wheys. Fifty to 500 microliter of whey were fractionated with a stepwise ionic strength gradient using water (buffer A) and increasing concentrations of .7 M sodium acetate (buffer B). Six well-resolved peaks were obtained: 1) amino acids (tentative(More)
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