Art Cohen

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Primary damage caused by injury to the CNS is often followed by delayed degeneration of initially spared neurons. Studies in our laboratory have shown that active or passive immunization with CNS myelin-associated self-antigens can reduce this secondary loss. Here we show, using four experimental paradigms in rodents, that CNS trauma spontaneously evokes a(More)
The results of this study attribute to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) a role in regeneration of injured mammalian central nervous system (CNS) axons which grow into their own degenerating environment. This is the first time that a specific factor involved in axonal regeneration has been identified. The axonal environment is occupied mostly by glia cells, i.e.,(More)
Fish optic nerves, unlike mammalian optic nerves, are endowed with a high capacity to regenerate. Injury to fish optic nerves causes pronounced changes in the composition of pulse-labeled substances derived from the surrounding non-neuronal cells. The most prominent of these injury-induced changes is in a 28-kilodalton (kDa) polypeptide whose level(More)
Axons of the central nervous system in adult mammals do not regenerate spontaneously after injury, partly because of the presence of oligodendrocytes that inhibit axonal growth. This is not the case in lower vertebrates (e.g., in fish), where regeneration of the optic nerve does occur spontaneously and has been correlated with the presence of factors(More)
Mammalian central nervous system (CNS) axons are virtually incapable of regenerating after injury. However, CNS neurons of lower vertebrates, such as fish and amphibians, are endowed with a high regenerative capacity. Lately, the glial cells have been credited with the regenerative ability of any specific CNS. We have previously demonstrated that many(More)
Neurons in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) have a poor capacity for regenerating their axons after injury. In contrast, neurons in the CNS of lower vertebrates and in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) of mammals are endowed with a high posttraumatic capacity to regenerate. The differences in regenerative capacity have been attributed to the(More)
Healthy persons manifest a high frequency of T cells reactive to epitopes of the self 60-kDa heat-shock protein (hsp60) molecule. It was reasoned that a self hsp60 peptide, p458m, might provide T cell help for a response to the T independent capsular polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 4 (PS4). The conjugate vaccine (PS4-p458m) induced(More)
A main requisite in the phagocytosis of ingested material is a coordinated series of maturation steps which lead to the degradation of ingested cargo. Photoreceptor outer segment (POS) renewal involves phagocytosis of the distal disk membranes by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Previously, we identified melanoregulin (MREG) as an intracellular(More)
Heterotrimeric G-proteins, composed of alpha and betagamma subunits, transmit signals from cell-surface receptors to cellular effectors and ion channels. Cellular responses to receptor agonists depend on not only the type and amount of G-protein subunits expressed but also the ratio of alpha and betagamma subunits. Thus far, little is known about how the(More)
Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is inducible in experimental animals immunized with myelin basic protein (MBP), proteolipid protein (PLP) or their peptides. We compared T-cell responses to encephalitogenic epitopes of PLP(43-64) and MBP(Ac1-11) in a single mouse strain, (PL/J x SJL)F1. MBP(1-11)-specific T-cell hybridomas expressed(More)