Arpita Upadhyaya

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We describe the design, fabrication, and performance of a bioreactor that enables both morphogenesis of 3D tissue structures under continuous perfusion and repeated in situ observation by light microscopy. Three-dimensional scaffolds were created by deep reactive ion etching of silicon wafers to create an array of channels (through-holes) with cell-adhesive(More)
Actin polymerization provides a powerful propulsion force for numerous types of cell motility. Although tremendous progress has been made in identifying the biochemical components necessary for actin-based motility, the precise biophysical mechanisms of force generation remain unclear. To probe the polymerization forces quantitatively, we introduce an(More)
We report for the first time that primary human neutrophils can undergo persistent, directionally biased movement away from a chemokine in vitro and in vivo, termed chemorepulsion or fugetaxis. Robust neutrophil chemorepulsion in microfluidic gradients of interleukin-8 (IL-8; CXC chemokine ligand 8) was dependent on the absolute concentration of chemokine,(More)
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi have robust bidirectional traffic between them and yet form distinct membrane compartments. Membrane tubules are pulled from large aggregates of ER or Golgi by microtubule motors to form ER tubulovesicular networks or Golgi tubules both in vivo and in vitro. The physical properties of membranes are critical for(More)
Cell motion within cellular aggregates consists of both random and coherent components. We used confocal microscopy to study the center of mass displacements and deformations of single endodermal Hydra cells in two kinds of cellular aggregates, ectodermal and endodermal. We first carefully characterize the center of mass displacements using standard(More)
Vorticella convallaria is one of the fastest and most powerful cellular machines. The cell body is attached to a substrate by a slender stalk containing a polymeric structure-the spasmoneme. Helical coiling of the stalk results from rapid contraction of the spasmoneme, an event mediated by calcium binding to a negatively charged polymeric backbone. We use(More)
Negative regulation of receptor signaling is essential for controlling cell activation and differentiation. In B-lymphocytes, the down-regulation of B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling is critical for suppressing the activation of self-reactive B cells; however, the mechanism underlying the negative regulation of signaling remains elusive. Using(More)
Actin polymerization provides a major driving force for eukaryotic cell motility. Successive intercalation of monomeric actin subunits between the plasma membrane and the filamentous actin network results in protrusions of the membrane enabling the cell to move or to change shape. One of the challenges in understanding eukaryotic cell motility is to dissect(More)
T-cells are critical for the adaptive immune response in the body. The binding of the T-cell receptor (TCR) with antigen on the surface of antigen-presenting cells leads to cell spreading and signaling activation. The underlying mechanism of signaling activation is not completely understood. Although cytoskeletal forces have been implicated in this process,(More)
The differential adhesion between cells is believed to be the major driving force behind the formation of tissues. The idea is that an aggregate of cells minimizes the overall adhesive energy between cell surfaces. We demonstrate in a model experimental system that there exist conditions where a slowly growing tissue does not minimize this adhesive energy.(More)