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The Virtual-Reality Peripheral Network (VRPN) system provides a device-independent and network-transparent interface to virtual-reality peripherals. VRPN's application of factoring by function and of layering in the context of devices produces an interface that is novel and powerful. VRPN also integrates a wide range of known advanced techniques into a(More)
1 Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works, must be obtained from the IEEE. Abstract We present the(More)
We designed, developed, deployed, and evaluated the Collaborative nanoManipulator (CnM), a distributed, collaborative virtual environment system supporting remote scientific collaboration between users of the nanoManipulator interface to atomic force microscopes. This paper briefly describes the entire collaboration system, but focuses on the shared(More)
This paper outlines major challenges that we are facing in interfacing a human user with objects in the nanoworld via a haptic interface. After a review of prior efforts at haptically-enabled nanomanipulation systems, we present the current state of our nanomanipulator system. We then discuss current research issues including the direct-Z mode, force(More)
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