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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a class of small, non-coding RNAs that act as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. In neurons, the functions of individual miRNAs are just beginning to emerge, and recent studies have elucidated roles for neural miRNAs at various stages of neuronal development and maturation, including neurite outgrowth,(More)
BACKGROUND MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding gene transcripts involved in post-transcriptional regulation of genes. Recent studies identified miRNAs as important regulators of learning and memory in model organisms. So far, no mutations in specific miRNA genes have been associated with impaired cognitive functions. METHODS AND RESULTS In three sibs and(More)
Hepatitis delta (delta) virus (HDV), a satellite virus of the hepatitis B virus (HBV), causes a severe form of viral hepatitis in humans. Here we present evidence based on electron microscopy and electrophoretic behaviour that HDV contains a single stranded circular RNA molecule. This is the first animal virus identified with a circular RNA genome. Circular(More)
Autism spectrum disorders are severe neurodevelopmental disorders, marked by impairments in reciprocal social interaction, delays in early language and communication, and the presence of restrictive, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors. Accumulating evidence suggests that dysfunction of the amygdala may be partially responsible for the impairment of social(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important gene regulators that are abundantly expressed in both the developing and adult mammalian brain. These non-coding gene transcripts are involved in post-transcriptional regulatory processes by binding to specific target mRNAs. Approximately one third of known miRNA genes are located within intronic regions of protein coding(More)
The Aspergillus niger trpC gene was isolated by complementation experiments with an Escherichia coli trpC mutant. Plasmid DNA containing the A. niger trpC gene transforms an Aspergillus nidulans mutant strain, defective in all three enzymatic activities of the trpC gene, to Trp+, indicating the presence of a complete and functional trpC gene. Southern blot(More)
MicroRNAs (miRs) are non-coding gene transcripts abundantly expressed in both the developing and adult mammalian brain. They act as important modulators of complex gene regulatory networks during neuronal development and plasticity. miR-181c is highly abundant in cerebellar cortex and its expression is increased in autism patients as well as in an animal(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are promising targets for cell engineering through modulation of crucial cellular pathways. An effective introduction of miRNAs into the cell is a prerequisite to reliably study microRNA function. Previously, non-viral delivery of nucleic acids has been demonstrated to be cell type as well as culture medium dependent. Due to their(More)
Mutations affecting the levels of microRNA miR-137 are associated with intellectual disability and schizophrenia. However, the pathophysiological role of miR-137 remains poorly understood. Here, we describe a highly conserved miR-137-binding site within the mRNA encoding the GluA1 subunit of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) and confirm that GluA1 is a(More)
The emergence of optogenetics technology facilitated widespread applications for interrogation of complex neural networks, such as activation of specific axonal pathways, previously found impossible with electrical stimulation. Consequently, within the short period of its application in neuroscience research, optogenetics has led to findings of significant(More)