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CONTEXT Use and abuse of prescription narcotic analgesics have increased dramatically in the United States since 1990. The effect of this pharmacoepidemic has been most pronounced in rural states, including West Virginia, which experienced the nation's largest increase in drug overdose mortality rates during 1999-2004. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the risk(More)
Although recognized as the leading cause of epidemic acute gastroenteritis across all age groups, norovirus has remained poorly characterized with respect to its endemic disease incidence. Use of different methods, including attributable proportion extrapolation, population-based surveillance, and indirect modeling, in several recent studies has(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine whether the observed excess of childhood leukaemia and lymphoma near the Sellafield nuclear plant is associated with established risk factors or with factors related to the plant. DESIGN A case-control study. SETTING West Cumbria health district. SUBJECTS 52 Cases of leukaemia, 22 of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and 23 of Hodgkin's(More)
BACKGROUND Globally, gastroenteritis is recognized as an important contributor to mortality among children, but population-based data on gastroenteritis deaths among adults and the contributions of specific pathogens are limited. We aimed to describe trends in gastroenteritis deaths across all ages in the United States and specifically estimate the(More)
To the Editor: The updated estimates of foodborne illness in the United States reported by Scallan et al. probably overestimate the occurrence of illness caused by unspecifi ed agents because they did not account for the apparent sensitivity of the population survey to the occurrence of norovirus (1,2). The number of illnesses attributed to unspecifi ed(More)
The advent of molecular techniques and their increasingly widespread use in public health laboratories and research studies has transformed the understanding of the burden of norovirus. Norovirus is the most common cause of community-acquired diarrheal disease across all ages, the most common cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis, and the most common cause(More)
Descriptions of changes in hematological indices have contested the premise that the biological effects of suspended particulate matter (PM) are restricted to the lung. Employing approximately 40 hematologic parameters reflecting blood cells, chemistries, mediators, and coagulation factors, we tested the hypothesis that exposure to concentrated ambient air(More)
INTRODUCTION Norovirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis and foodborne disease in the United States, causing an estimated one in 15 U.S. residents to become ill each year as well as 56,000-71,000 hospitalizations and 570-800 deaths, predominantly among young children and the elderly. Whereas noroviruses often spread through person-to-person(More)
In October 2009, a new genogroup II, type 4 (GII.4) norovirus variant was identified in the United States. We collected norovirus outbreak data from 30 states to assess whether this new strain was associated with increased acute gastroenteritis activity. No increase in norovirus outbreaks was observed during the 2009-2010 winter.