Arnold W. M. Smeulders

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This paper addresses the problem of generating possible object locations for use in object recognition. We introduce selective search which combines the strength of both an exhaustive search and segmentation. Like segmentation, we use the image structure to guide our sampling process. Like exhaustive search, we aim to capture all possible object locations.(More)
We present the ALOI collection of 1,000 objects recorded under various imaging circumstances. In order to capture the sensory variation in object recordings, we systematically varied viewing angle, illumination angle, and illumination color for each object, and additionally captured wide-baseline stereo images. We recorded over a hundred images of each(More)
For object recognition, the current state-of-the-art is based on exhaustive search. However, to enable the use of more expensive features and classifiers and thereby progress beyond the state-of-the-art, a selective search strategy is needed. Therefore, we adapt segmentation as a selective search by reconsidering segmentation: We propose to generate many(More)
We introduce the challenge problem for generic video indexing to gain insight in intermediate steps that affect performance of multimedia analysis methods, while at the same time fostering repeatability of experiments. To arrive at a challenge problem, we provide a general scheme for the systematic examination of automated concept detection methods, by(More)
This paper studies automatic image classification by modeling soft assignment in the popular codebook model. The codebook model describes an image as a bag of discrete visual words selected from a vocabulary, where the frequency distributions of visual words in an image allow classification. One inherent component of the codebook model is the assignment of(More)
The purpose is to arrive at recognition of multicolored objects invariant to a substantial change in viewpoint, object geometry and illumination. Assuming dichromatic reflectance and white illumination, it is shown that normalized color rgb, saturation S and hue H, and the newly proposed color models c 1 c 2 c 3 and l 1 l 2 l 3 are all invariant to a change(More)
This paper introduces a method for scene categorization by modeling ambiguity in the popular codebook approach. The codebook approach describes an image as a bag of discrete visual codewords, where the frequency distributions of these words are used for image categorization. There are two drawbacks to the traditional codebook model: codeword uncertainty and(More)
There is a large variety of trackers, which have been proposed in the literature during the last two decades with some mixed success. Object tracking in realistic scenarios is a difficult problem, therefore, it remains a most active area of research in computer vision. A good tracker should perform well in a large number of videos involving illumination(More)
Semantic analysis of multimodal video aims to index segments of interest at a conceptual level. In reaching this goal, it requires an analysis of several information streams. At some point in the analysis these streams need to be fused. In this paper, we consider two classes of fusion schemes, namely early fusion and late fusion. The former fuses modalities(More)