Arnold R. Spokane

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BACKGROUND Research on contextual and neighborhood effects increasingly includes the built (physical) environment's influences on health and social well-being. A population-based study examined whether architectural features of the built environment theorized to promote observations and social interactions (e.g., porches, windows) predict Hispanic elders'(More)
This study examines the relationship between cognitive functioning and depressive symptoms across 3 years in a prospective study of 273 community-dwelling, Hispanic older adults in Miami. The analyses extend the literature by testing for a bidirectional or reciprocal relationship between depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning over time and by(More)
BACKGROUND Research on neighborhood effects increasingly includes the influences of the built environment on health and social well-being. OBJECTIVES In this population-based study in a low-socioeconomic-status (SES), Hispanic neighborhood, we examined whether architectural features of the built environment theorized to promote direct observations and(More)
To determine effective relationships between the built environment and health and well-being, a transdisciplinary team of architectural, behavioral and health scientists developed a built environment coding system (UMBECS). They examined the relationship of resulting streetscape features to health and well-being at the block level. The research team(More)
A population-based study examined the relationship between diversity of use of the built environment and teacher reports of children's grades. Diversity of use of the built environment (i.e., proportion of a block that is residential, institutional, commercial and vacant) was assessed for all 403 city blocks in East Little Havana, Miami-a Hispanic(More)
This study examines the relationship between neighboring behavior and depressive symptoms across 3 years in a prospective study of 273 community-dwelling, Hispanic older adults in Miami, Florida. The analyses extend the literature by testing for a bidirectional or reciprocal relationship between neighboring behavior and depressive symptoms over time and(More)
This study compared 5 psychological models of the relationship between social support (SS) and behavioral health. These theoretical models, which have garnered some level of prior empirical support, were as follows: (a) main effects, (b) buffering effects, (c) social exchange, (d) equity, and (e) protective health outcomes of providing SS. A(More)
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