Arnold R. Spokane

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This study examines the relationship between cognitive functioning and depressive symptoms across 3 years in a prospective study of 273 community-dwelling, Hispanic older adults in Miami. The analyses extend the literature by testing for a bidirectional or reciprocal relationship between depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning over time and by(More)
BACKGROUND Research on neighborhood effects increasingly includes the influences of the built environment on health and social well-being. OBJECTIVES In this population-based study in a low-socioeconomic-status (SES), Hispanic neighborhood, we examined whether architectural features of the built environment theorized to promote direct observations and(More)
A population-based study examined the relationship between diversity of use of the built environment and teacher reports of children's grades. Diversity of use of the built environment (i.e., proportion of a block that is residential, institutional, commercial and vacant) was assessed for all 403 city blocks in East Little Havana, Miami-a Hispanic(More)
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