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BACKGROUND On average, cognition declines with age but this average hides considerable variability, including the chance of improvement. Here, we investigate how exercise is associated with cognitive change and mortality in older people and, particularly, whether exercise might paradoxically increase the risk of dementia by allowing people to live longer.(More)
This review article summarizes how frailty can be considered in relation to deficit accumulation. Recalling that frailty is an age-associated, nonspecific vulnerability, we consider symptoms, signs, diseases, and disabilities as deficits, which are combined in a frailty index. An individual's frailty index score reflects the proportion of potential deficits(More)
BACKGROUND Many definitions of frailty exist, but few have been directly compared. We compared the relationship between a definition of frailty based on a specific phenotype with one based on an index of deficit accumulation. METHODS The data come from all 2305 people 70 years old and older who composed the clinical examination cohort of the second wave(More)
This paper develops a method for appraising health status in elderly people. A frailty index was defined as the proportion of accumulated deficits (symptoms, signs, functional impairments, and laboratory abnormalities). It serves as an individual state variable, reflecting severity of illness and proximity to death. In a representative database of elderly(More)
BACKGROUND There is no single generally accepted clinical definition of frailty. Previously developed tools to assess frailty that have been shown to be predictive of death or need for entry into an institutional facility have not gained acceptance among practising clinicians. We aimed to develop a tool that would be both predictive and easy to use. (More)
BACKGROUND People age at remarkably different rates, but how to estimate trajectories of senescence is controversial. METHODS In a secondary analysis of a representative cohort of Canadians aged 65 and over (n = 2914) we estimated a frailty index based on the proportion of 20 deficits observed in a structured clinical examination. The construct validity(More)
Using data from seven studies from Canada, Australia and the United States we were able to evaluate the heterogeneity of health status for 34,095 people aged 60 years and older. We found that relative heterogeneity (measured by the coefficient of variation) decreased with age. The coefficient of variation also decreased as a function of deficit accumulation(More)
A technique is described that characterizes the dynamics of the interjoint coordination of arm reaching movements in healthy subjects (n=10) and in patients who had sustained a left-sided cerebrovascular accident (n=18). All participants were right-handed. Data from the affected right arm of patients with stroke were compared with those from the right arm(More)
Models of human mortality include a factor that summarises intrinsic differences in individual rates of ageing, commonly called frailty. Frailty also describes a clinical syndrome of apparent vulnerability. In a representative, cross-sectional, Canadian survey (n = 66,589) we calculated a frailty index as the mean accumulation of deficits and previously(More)
BACKGROUND While on average health declines with age, it also becomes more variable with age. As a consequence of this marked variability, it becomes more important as people age to have a means of summarizing health status, but how precisely to do so remains controversial. We developed one measure of health status, personal biological age, from a frailty(More)