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This review article summarizes how frailty can be considered in relation to deficit accumulation. Recalling that frailty is an age-associated, nonspecific vulnerability, we consider symptoms, signs, diseases, and disabilities as deficits, which are combined in a frailty index. An individual's frailty index score reflects the proportion of potential deficits(More)
BACKGROUND There is no single generally accepted clinical definition of frailty. Previously developed tools to assess frailty that have been shown to be predictive of death or need for entry into an institutional facility have not gained acceptance among practising clinicians. We aimed to develop a tool that would be both predictive and easy to use. (More)
BACKGROUND Many definitions of frailty exist, but few have been directly compared. We compared the relationship between a definition of frailty based on a specific phenotype with one based on an index of deficit accumulation. METHODS The data come from all 2305 people 70 years old and older who composed the clinical examination cohort of the second wave(More)
BACKGROUND On average, cognition declines with age but this average hides considerable variability, including the chance of improvement. Here, we investigate how exercise is associated with cognitive change and mortality in older people and, particularly, whether exercise might paradoxically increase the risk of dementia by allowing people to live longer.(More)
BACKGROUND Frailty can be measured in relation to the accumulation of deficits using a frailty index. A frailty index can be developed from most ageing databases. Our objective is to systematically describe a standard procedure for constructing a frailty index. METHODS This is a secondary analysis of the Yale Precipitating Events Project cohort study,(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate the relationship between accumulated health-related problems (deficits), which define a frailty index in older adults, and mortality in population-based and clinical/institutional-based samples. DESIGN Cross-sectional and cohort studies. SETTING Seven population-based and four clinical/institutional surveys in four developed(More)
OBJECTIVES To measure relative fitness and frailty in older people without specific frailty instruments and to relate that measurement to long-term health outcomes. DESIGN Retrospective cohort studies. SETTING Two population-based studies of people aged approximately 70 at baseline and followed up to 10 years (in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging(More)
Models of human mortality include a factor that summarises intrinsic differences in individual rates of ageing, commonly called frailty. Frailty also describes a clinical syndrome of apparent vulnerability. In a representative, cross-sectional, Canadian survey (n = 66,589) we calculated a frailty index as the mean accumulation of deficits and previously(More)
We evaluated limits to the accumulation of deficits (symptoms, diseases, disabilities) for 33,069 people aged 65+ years. We combined deficits in a frailty index (theoretical range 0-1) and found that the 99% limit varied little between samples, representing a frailty index value of about 0.65 +/- 0.05. This near-maximum shows no relationship with age. It is(More)
As people age, they accumulate deficits. The more deficits they accumulate, the greater their vulnerability, which can be expressed as the probability to accumulate even more deficits, or to die. The probability of death is known to be exponentially related to the number of deficits. Using data from elderly (aged 65 + years) participants in the Canadian(More)