Arnold David Konrad Hill

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OBJECTIVE We sought to establish the clinical relevance of micrometastatic disease detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in axillary lymph nodes (ALN) of breast cancer patients. BACKGROUND The presence of ALN metastases remains one of the most valuable prognostic indicators in women with breast cancer. However, the clinical(More)
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a naturally occurring growth factor produced by several cell types in response to a variety of stimuli. GM-CSF has potent stimulatory effects on the growth and maturation of hematopoietic cells and has profound effects on mature circulating effector cells. Clinical applications of GM-CSF include(More)
OBJECTIVES Complex endovascular skills are difficult to obtain in the clinical environment. Virtual reality (VR) simulator training is a valuable addition to current training curricula, but is there a benefit in the absence of expert trainers? METHODS Eighteen endovascular novices performed a renal artery angioplasty/stenting (RAS) on the Vascular(More)
The effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on murine antitumour responses was examined. Sixty mice received Lewis lung carcinoma implants and were then randomized to receive GM-CSF 1 microgram/day, GM-CSF 0.5 microgram/day or saline for 10 days and studied with regard to tumour volume, carcass weight and food intake. Macrophage(More)
BACKGROUND In hospitalized patients protein calorie malnutrition substantially increases the incidence of infection and death. Protein calorie malnutrition results in significant macrophage dysfunction. Whether a primary nutrient deficit or elevated glucocorticoids levels mediate this dysfunction is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the(More)
Basic surgical skills are an integral part of surgical training. Simulation-based surgical training offers an opportunity both to trainees and trainers to learn and teach surgical skills outside the operating room in a nonpatient, nonstressed environment. However, widespread adoption of simulation technology especially in medical education is prohibited by(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of proximate or immediate feedback during an intensive training session. The authors hypothesised that provision of feedback during a training session would improve performance and learning curves. METHODS Twenty-eight trainee surgeons participated in the study between September and December 2008. They were consecutively(More)
Cytokines are low molecular weight proteins released by cells of the immune system that have therapeutic potential in cancer. They include the interleukins, the interferons, tumour necrosis factor and the colony-stimulating factors. Cytokines are capable of producing significant and sustained responses against a number of tumours. Clinically, the highest(More)
To address the clinical relevance of molecular detection of occult breast cancer in sentinel lymph nodes and nonsentinel axillary lymph nodes (ALN), we initiated the Minimally Invasive Molecular Staging of Breast Cancer (MIMS) trial, a multi-institutional prospective cohort study. This trial represents the first prospective cohort study in which a(More)