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OBJECTIVES To determine whether there is an association between bystander mouth-to-mouth ventilation and regurgitation in prehospital cardiac arrest patients. DESIGN Prospectively conducted observational study. SETTING Data were collected from patients treated by the emergency medical service (EMS) systems in three middle-sized or large Finnish urban(More)
Two commercially available pulse oximeters were found to read reliably early during periods of low cardiac index (CI) and low peripheral temperature (Tp). The lowest mean CI and mean Tp values at which a reading could be obtained were 2.4 L/min.m2 and 26.5 degrees C, respectively. The highest mean systemic vascular resistance index was 2930 dyne.sec/cm5.m2.(More)
BACKGROUND Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a form of degenerative motor neuron disease. At the end stage of the disease artificial feeding is often required. Nevertheless, very little is known about the energy demand of those ALS patients who are chronically dependent on tracheostomy intermittent positive pressure ventilation. The objective of our(More)
UNLABELLED BACKGROUND Hypoventilation due to respiratory insufficiency is the most common cause of death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and non-invasive ventilation (NIV) can be used as a palliative treatment. The current guidelines recommend performing spirometry, and recording nocturnal oxyhemoglobin saturation and arterial blood gas analysis(More)
In healthy volunteers plasma antidiuretic hormone level, renin activity, and human growth hormone level remained unchanged during successive CPPV, CPAP, and control periods. The plasma level of insulin C-peptide was higher during CPPV than during the control period. Urine flow, glomerular filtration rate, free water clearance, and sodium excretion rate were(More)
The usefulness of radioreceptor assay (RRA) in the pharmacokinetic studies on midazolam - the first benzodiazepine with water-soluble salts - was compared with that of gas liquid chromatography (GLC) in 18 patients operated on under local anesthesia in supine position. There were no significant differences observed in the serum levels determined with these(More)
The lowest values of pulse pressure (dPP) and peripheral temperature (Tp) associated with reliable readings from three different pulse oximeters (Biox Ohmeda 3700, Datex Satlite, and Nellcor N-200) were assessed, along with the ability of the pulse oximeters to work immediately before and after total cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The lowest mean dPP with a(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the ability of three different pulse oximeters to give reliable readings during poor cardiac index and peripheral temperature states as compared with normal cardiac index and peripheral temperature states in the same patients. DESIGN The accuracy of the oximeters was tested against a blood oximeter (measuring actual arterial oxygen(More)
The aim of this validation study was to assess the reliability of gas exchange measurement with indirect calorimetry among subjects who undergo non-invasive ventilation (NIV). Oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) were measured in twelve healthy volunteers. Respiratory quotient (RQ) and resting energy expenditure (REE) were then(More)
AIMS To study the cause of deaths after witnessed cardiac arrest followed by pulseless electrical activity and unsuccessful of out-of-hospital resuscitation; and to detect any differences between causes of death determined at autopsy and those inferred from clinical history. METHODS In this prospective observational study, data were collected from 91(More)