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Two commercially available pulse oximeters were found to read reliably early during periods of low cardiac index (CI) and low peripheral temperature (Tp). The lowest mean CI and mean Tp values at which a reading could be obtained were 2.4 L/min.m2 and 26.5 degrees C, respectively. The highest mean systemic vascular resistance index was 2930 dyne.sec/cm5.m2.(More)
The usefulness of radioreceptor assay (RRA) in the pharmacokinetic studies on midazolam - the first benzodiazepine with water-soluble salts - was compared with that of gas liquid chromatography (GLC) in 18 patients operated on under local anesthesia in supine position. There were no significant differences observed in the serum levels determined with these(More)
The lowest values of pulse pressure (dPP) and peripheral temperature (Tp) associated with reliable readings from three different pulse oximeters (Biox Ohmeda 3700, Datex Satlite, and Nellcor N-200) were assessed, along with the ability of the pulse oximeters to work immediately before and after total cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The lowest mean dPP with a(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the ability of three different pulse oximeters to give reliable readings during poor cardiac index and peripheral temperature states as compared with normal cardiac index and peripheral temperature states in the same patients. DESIGN The accuracy of the oximeters was tested against a blood oximeter (measuring actual arterial oxygen(More)
AIMS To study the cause of deaths after witnessed cardiac arrest followed by pulseless electrical activity and unsuccessful of out-of-hospital resuscitation; and to detect any differences between causes of death determined at autopsy and those inferred from clinical history. METHODS In this prospective observational study, data were collected from 91(More)
The aim of this validation study was to assess the reliability of gas exchange measurement with indirect calorimetry among subjects who undergo non-invasive ventilation (NIV). Oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) were measured in twelve healthy volunteers. Respiratory quotient (RQ) and resting energy expenditure (REE) were then(More)
BACKGROUND Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a form of degenerative motor neuron disease. At the end stage of the disease artificial feeding is often required. Nevertheless, very little is known about the energy demand of those ALS patients who are chronically dependent on tracheostomy intermittent positive pressure ventilation. The objective of our(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine whether there is an association between bystander mouth-to-mouth ventilation and regurgitation in prehospital cardiac arrest patients. DESIGN Prospectively conducted observational study. SETTING Data were collected from patients treated by the emergency medical service (EMS) systems in three middle-sized or large Finnish urban(More)
The effects of different premedication (i.m. and i.v.) on the usefulness of midazolam or thiopentone as induction agents for minor surgery was studied in 194 women undergoing either dilatation and curettage or explorative fractionate curettage. Midazolam appeared to produce light sedation which required powerful premedication (i.m. atropine + pethidine and(More)
BACKGROUND The regurgitation of gastric contents and subsequent pulmonary aspiration remain serious adverse events in cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The aim of this study was to determine the association between clinical signs of regurgitation and radiological findings consistent with aspiration in resuscitated out-of-hospital cardiac(More)