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The formalin test for nociception, which is predominantly used with rats and mice, involves moderate, continuous pain generated by injured tissue. In this way it differs from most traditional tests of nociception which rely upon brief stimuli of threshold intensity. In this article we describe the main features of the formalin test, including the(More)
The method commonly used for catheterization of the lumbar subarachnoid space in the rat implies inserting the catheter through the atlanto-occipital (A-O) membrane and moving the catheter caudally along the spinal cord. The method is associated with a considerable morbidity. A method for direct catheterization of the lumbar subarachnoid space was therefore(More)
Long term facilitation (LTF) of C-fiber-evoked firing of wide dynamic range neurons in the spinal dorsal horn in response to conditioning stimulation (CS) of afferent fibers is a widely studied cellular model of spinal nociceptive sensitization. Although 100 Hz CS of primary afferent fibers is commonly used to induce spinal cord LTF, this frequency exceeds(More)
LTP is often studied as a model of synaptic plasticity. Plasticity in pain control systems may involve mechanisms similar to those involved in learning. We recently reported LTP of both the A beta and C-fibre evoked responses of single dorsal horn neurons after a tetanic stimulation of the sciatic nerve, lasting for at least 6 h. In the present paper we(More)
Plasticity in the central nervous system may play an important role in clinical pain. The present study shows that long-term potentiation (LTP) may be induced in single wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons in the dorsal horn after high-frequency stimulation of the sciatic nerve in intact urethane anaesthetized rats. Extracellular recordings of firing responses(More)
Previous studies have shown that long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dorsal horn may be induced by noxious stimuli. In this study it is investigated whether induction of LTP in the dorsal horn may be affected by the descending pathways. Extracellular recordings of wide dynamic range (WDR) neurones in the lumbar dorsal horn in intact urethane-anaesthetized(More)
We have published several reports on long-term potentiation (LTP) in single spinal wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons (responding to both innocuous and noxious stimuli) in urethane-anaesthetised rats. The protocol presented here, with single unit recordings of dorsal horn neurons before and after a nociceptive conditioning stimulation, may be useful in many(More)
The increasing-temperature hot-plate test has several advantages compared to the conventional hot-plate test, but available equipment has been impractical and restricted with regard to stimulus control. We now describe an apparatus consisting of an aluminum plate that is heated and cooled by Peltier elements in contact with its lower surface. Several plates(More)
BACKGROUND Long-term opioid treatment is associated with the development of hyperalgesia. In a rat model we wanted to study if chronic opioid treatment changed the induction and maintenance of spinal long-term potentiation (LTP), a form of hyperexcitability in the spinal cord. We also wanted to investigate if the clinically available NMDA receptor(More)