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BACKGROUND & AIMS Constitutive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been implicated in regulation of growth and malignant transformation. We therefore analyzed the expression and biologic significance of STAT3 in human pancreatic cancer cells. METHODS Expression and activation of STAT3 were investigated by(More)
We have previously described a small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery system (AtuPLEX) for RNA interference (RNAi) in the vasculature of mice. Here we report preclinical data for Atu027, a siRNA-lipoplex directed against protein kinase N3 (PKN3), currently under development for the treatment of advanced solid cancer. In vitro studies revealed that(More)
Metastatic bone disease caused by renal cell carcinoma (RCC) occurs frequently and becomes more and more prevalent presumably because survival times among patients with disseminated cancers are increasing. Patients with bone metastases from renal cell carcinoma suffer from severe pain, nerve compression syndromes and pathologic fractures. Very little is(More)
PURPOSE Inhibition of angiogenesis represents a promising therapeutic strategy in neuroendocrine tumors. Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), a ligand of the endothelial tyrosine kinase Tie-2, is emerging as a key regulator of vascular remodeling during tumor angiogenesis. We therefore addressed the expression and biological significance of Ang-2 in human neuroendocrine(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor is known to play a critical role in hepatocellular tumor biology. In an attempt to identify factors responsible for vascular endothelial growth factor induction in human hepatocellular carcinoma, we evaluated the effects of activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor-beta(More)
Lymphatic spread is an important clinical determinant for the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but little is known about the control of lymphangiogenesis in HCC. We addressed expression and biological role of the pro-(lymph), angiogenic protein VEGF-D in this tumor entity. Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization on specimens of HCC,(More)
PURPOSE Effective control of pancreatic cancer has been hampered primarily by the lack of tumor specificity of current treatment modalities. The highly specific antibody-mediated delivery of therapeutic agents to the tumor microenvironment might overcome this problem. We therefore investigated the therapeutic efficacy of the targeted immunocytokine(More)
Lymphatic metastasis constitutes a critical route of disease dissemination, which limits the prognosis of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). As lymphangiogenesis has been implicated in stimulation of lymphatic metastasis by vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) and VEGF-D, we studied the effect of the angioregulatory growth(More)
Using PD325901 as a starting point for identifying novel allosteric MEK inhibitors with high cell potency and long-lasting target inhibition in vivo, truncation of its hydroxamic ester headgroup was combined with incorporation of alkyl and aryl ethers at the neighboring ring position. Whereas alkoxy side chains did not yield sufficient levels of cell(More)
OBJECTIVES Liver cirrhosis is characterized by remodeling leading to nodules that are difficult to discern from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) serum levels are used for the screening for HCC, with limited success. We evaluated angiopoietin-2 as a serum marker in patients with cirrhosis and with HCC. METHODS In a retrospective(More)