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We have investigated cutaneous purified protein derivative-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses in healthy volunteers to determine features associated with both the generation and resolution of the reaction. The clinical peak of the response occurred at day 3; however, T cell numbers were maximal on day 7. There was a preferential increase(More)
The inflamed liver in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (CHB) is characterized by a large influx of non-virus-specific CD8 T cells. Little is known about the functional capacity of these lymphocytes, which could provide insights into mechanisms of failure of viral control and liver damage in this setting. We compared the effector function of total(More)
Naturally occurring CD4(+)CD25(hi)Foxp3(+) Tregs (nTregs) are highly proliferative in blood. However, the kinetics of their accumulation and proliferation during a localized antigen-specific T cell response is currently unknown. To explore this, we used a human experimental system whereby tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) was injected into the(More)
Immunity declines during aging, however the mechanisms involved in this decline are not known. In this study, we show that cutaneous delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses to recall antigens are significantly decreased in older individuals. However, this is not related to CC chemokine receptor 4, cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen, or CD11a(More)
The enzyme telomerase counteracts telomere loss in proliferating cells and extends their capacity for replication. The importance of telomerase is highlighted by the award of the 2006 Albert Lasker Prize for Basic Medical Research for its discovery. Malignant cells subvert telomerase induction to their advantage, and up-regulation of this enzyme confers(More)
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Herpes viruses are endemic. Once established, the virus is never eliminated but persists throughout life. The fraction of infected individuals gradually increases with age, such that the majority of elderly people are cyto-megalovirus (CMV) 1 , Epstein– Barr virus (EBV) 1 and Varicella 1. Clinically relevant reactivation of Varicella causes painful(More)
Alone among herpesviruses, persistent Cytomegalovirus (CMV) markedly alters the numbers and proportions of peripheral immune cells in infected-vs-uninfected people. Because the rate of CMV infection increases with age in most countries, it has been suggested that it drives or at least exacerbates “immunosenescence”. This contention remains controversial and(More)
Pathological processes involved in the initiation of rheumatoid synovitis remain unclear. We undertook the present study to identify immune and stromal processes that are present soon after the clinical onset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by assessing a panel of T cell, macrophage, and stromal cell related cytokines and chemokines in the synovial fluid of(More)
The extent of human memory T cell proliferation, differentiation, and telomere erosion that occurs after a single episode of immune challenge in vivo is unclear. To investigate this, we injected tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) into the skin of immune individuals and isolated responsive T cells from the site of antigenic challenge at different(More)